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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
  (Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______________ to _______________
Commission file number: 001-35795
GLADSTONE LAND CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland 54-1892552
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1521 Westbranch Drive,Suite 100
McLean,Virginia22102
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(703) 287-5800
Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $0.001 par value per shareLANDThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
6.00% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per shareLANDOThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
6.00% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per shareLANDPThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
5.00% Series D Cumulative Term Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share
LANDMThe Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.     Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.     Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes  ☒    No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).     Yes  ☒     No  ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer  Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
  Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 762(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).     Yes       No  ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on June 30, 2023, based on the closing price on that date of $16.27 per share on the Nasdaq Global Market, was approximately $540.4 million. For the purposes of calculating this amount only, all directors and executive officers of the Registrant have been deemed to be affiliates.
The number of shares of the Registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding as of February 19, 2024, was 35,838,442.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement, to be filed no later than April 30, 2024, relating to the Registrant’s 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
1

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GLADSTONE LAND CORPORATION
FORM 10-K FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
         PAGE
PART I  ITEM 1    
  ITEM 1A    
  ITEM 1B    
ITEM 1C
  ITEM 2    
  ITEM 3    
  ITEM 4    
PART II  ITEM 5    
  ITEM 6    
  ITEM 7    
  ITEM 7A    
  ITEM 8    
  ITEM 9    
  ITEM 9A    
  ITEM 9B    
ITEM 9C
PART III  ITEM 10    
  ITEM 11    
  ITEM 12    
  ITEM 13    
  ITEM 14    
PART IV  ITEM 15    
ITEM 16
SIGNATURES    
2

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

Our disclosure and analysis in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (the “Form 10-K”) and the documents that are incorporated by reference herein contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Forward-looking statements involve inherent risks and uncertainties as they relate to expectations, beliefs, projections, future plans and strategies, anticipated events, or trends concerning matters that are not historical facts and may ultimately prove to be incorrect or false. Forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future events, including, without limitation, those relating to the discussion and analysis of our business, financial condition, results of operations, and our strategic plans and objectives. Words such as “may,” “might,” “believe,” “will,” “anticipate,” “future,” “could,” “growth,” “plan,” “intend,” “expect,” “should,” “would,” “if,” “seek,” “possible,” “potential,” “likely” and variations of these words and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, though not all forward-looking statements contain these words. Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those included within or contemplated by such statements, including, but not limited to, the description of risks and uncertainties in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Form 10-K. Additional information regarding risk factors that may affect us is included in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” of this Form 10-K, and readers of our Form 10-K should also read our SEC and other publicly-filed documents for further discussion regarding such factors.
You are cautioned to not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made. Except as otherwise may be required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, to reflect changes to our assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events, or actual operating results.
Summary Risk Factors
Below is a summary of the principal risk factors associated with an investment in our securities. In addition to the below, you should carefully consider the information included in “Risk Factors” beginning on page 15 of this Annual Report together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report and the other reports and documents filed or furnished by us with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) for a more detailed discussion of the principal risks (as well as certain other risks) that you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.
Our real estate portfolio is concentrated across a limited number of states, which subjects us to an increased risk of significant loss if adverse weather, economic, or regulatory changes or developments in the markets in which our properties are located occurs.
We currently lease many of our properties to medium-sized, independent farming operations and agricultural businesses, which may have limited financial and personnel resources and, therefore, may be less stable than larger companies, which could impact our ability to generate rental revenue.
Some of our tenants may be unable to pay rent, which could adversely affect our cash available to make distributions to our stockholders or otherwise impair the value of your investment.
Our investments in farms subject to leases with a participation rent component based on the annual gross revenues earned on the respective farm means that a portion of our cash flow is exposed to various risks, including risks related to declining crop prices and lower-than-average crop production, which could have a material adverse effect on the amount of rent we can collect and, consequently, our cash flow and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
Our real estate investments will consist of agricultural properties that may be difficult to sell or re-lease upon tenant defaults or early lease terminations, either of which would adversely affect returns to stockholders.
Our operating results and the value of our properties may be impacted by future climate changes, adversely impacting the value of our properties and our ability to generate rental revenue.
We may not be able to raise sufficient capital or borrow money in sufficient amounts or on sufficiently favorable terms necessary to attain the optimal degree of leverage to operate our business, which may have an adverse effect on our operations and ability to pay distributions.
Interest rate fluctuations may adversely affect our results of operations.
Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents may adversely affect our business by causing a disruption to our operations or the operations of businesses in which we invest, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our financial condition, and operating results.
Our business may be adversely affected by public health emergencies.
We are dependent upon our key management personnel for our future success, particularly David Gladstone, Terry Lee Brubaker, Bill Reiman, and Lewis Parrish, and Jay Beckhorn.
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We may have conflicts of interest with our Adviser and other affiliates, which could result in investment decisions that are not in the best interests of our stockholders.
Our Adviser (as defined in Part 1, Item 1, “Business—Overview”) is not obligated to provide a waiver of the incentive fee, which could negatively impact our earnings and our ability to maintain our current level of, or increase, distributions to our stockholders.
Certain provisions contained in our charter and bylaws and under Maryland law may prohibit or restrict attempts by our stockholders to change our management and hinder efforts to effect a change of control of us, and the market price of our common stock may be lower as a result.
We may not have sufficient earnings and profits to pay distributions on our currently-designated preferred securities.
We may not be able to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, which would subject us to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, thereby reducing the amount of funds available for paying distributions to stockholders.
Investments in our common stock may not be suitable for pension or profit-sharing trusts, Keogh Plans, or individual retirement accounts, or IRAs.
If our Operating Partnership fails to maintain its status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, its income may be subject to taxation.
This list of risks and uncertainties, however, is only a summary of some of the most important factors to us and is not intended to be exhaustive. You should carefully review the risks set forth herein under Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Form 10-K. New factors may also emerge from time to time that could materially and adversely affect us.
All references to “we,” “our,” “us,” and the “Company” in this Form 10-K mean Gladstone Land Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, except where it is made clear that the term refers only to Gladstone Land Corporation.
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PART I

ITEM 1.BUSINESS
Overview
We are an externally-managed, agricultural REIT that is engaged in the business of owning and leasing farmland. We are not a grower of crops, nor do we typically farm the properties we own. We currently own 168 farms comprised of 111,836 acres across 15 states in the U.S. We also own several farm-related facilities that are necessary to the farming operations on the underlying farmland.
Our farmland is predominantly concentrated in locations where farmers are able to grow either fresh produce annual row crops (e.g., certain berries and vegetables), which are typically planted and harvested annually, or certain permanent crops (e.g., almonds, blueberries, pistachios, and wine grapes). To a much lesser extent, we also own farms that grow certain commodity crops (e.g., corn and beans). In addition, we own several farm-related facilities, such as cooling facilities, packinghouses, processing facilities, and various storage facilities. While our focus will continue to be on farmland growing either fresh produce annual row crops or certain permanent crops, in the future, we expect to acquire more farmland that grows commodity crops on a selective basis, as well as more farm-related facilities.
We conduct substantially all of our business activities through an Umbrella Partnership Real Estate Investment Trust (“UPREIT”) structure, by which all of our properties are held, directly or indirectly, by Gladstone Land Limited Partnership (the “Operating Partnership”). We control the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and currently own, directly or indirectly, 100.0% of the common units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership (“OP Units”). We have in the past, and may in the future, offer equity ownership in our Operating Partnership by issuing additional OP Units to farmland owners as consideration for acquiring their farms. See “Our Investment Process—Types of Investments” below for additional information regarding OP Units.
We are managed by our external adviser, Gladstone Management Corporation (the “Adviser”), and Gladstone Administration, LLC (the “Administrator”), provides administrative services to us. Both our Adviser and our Administrator are affiliates of ours and each other.
Upon the pricing of our initial public offering (the “IPO”), on January 29, 2013, our shares of common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “LAND.” Our shares of 6.00% Series B Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series B Preferred Stock”) are traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “LANDO,” our shares of 6.00% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series C Preferred Stock”) are traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “LANDP,” and our shares of 5.00% Series D Cumulative Term Preferred Stock (the “Series D Term Preferred Stock”) are traded on Nasdaq under the symbol “LANDM.” In addition, we have registered our 5.00% Series E Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series E Preferred Stock”). The Series E Preferred Stock is not listed on a national securities exchange, and there is currently no public market for shares of this security.
Our Investment Objectives and Our Strategy
Our principal business objective is to maximize stockholder returns through a combination of: (i) monthly cash distributions to our stockholders, which we hope to sustain and increase through long-term growth in cash flows from increased rents; (ii) appreciation of our land; and (iii) capital gains derived from the sale of our properties. Our primary strategy to achieve our business objective is to invest in and further diversify our current portfolio of primarily triple-net-leased farmland and farm related properties. In addition, we may also acquire certain commercial properties used by businesses that support agricultural communities. This strategy includes the following components:
Owning Farms, Farm-Related Real Estate, and Real Estate used by Businesses that Support Farming Communities for Income.  We own and intend to primarily acquire additional farms and farm-related properties and lease them to independent and corporate farming operations, including sellers who desire to continue farming the land after we acquire the property from them. We may also acquire commercial properties used by businesses that support farming communities. Such businesses may include, but are not limited to, farmer-owned cooperatives, rural infrastructure providers, and other agribusinesses. We intend to hold most acquired properties for many years and to generate stable and increasing rental income from leasing these properties.
Owning Farms, Farm-Related Real Estate, and Real Estate used by Businesses that Support Farming Communities for Appreciation.  We intend to lease acquired properties over the long term. However, from time to time, we may sell one or more properties if we believe it to be in the best interests of our stockholders and best to maintain the overall
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value of our portfolio. Potential purchasers may include real estate developers desiring to develop the property, financial purchasers seeking to acquire property for investment purposes, or farmers who have operated or seek to operate the land. Accordingly, we will seek to acquire properties that we believe have potential for long-term appreciation in value.
Continue Expanding our Operations Geographically.  Our properties are currently located in 15 states across the U.S., and we expect that we will acquire properties in other farming regions of the U.S. in the future. While our primary regions of focus are the West and the Southeast regions of the U.S., we believe other regions of the U.S., such as the Pacific Northwest and Mid-Atlantic regions, offer attractive locations for expansion, and, to a lesser extent, we also expect to seek farmland acquisitions in certain regions of the Midwest on a select, opportunistic basis, as well as other areas in the U.S.
Continue Expanding our Crop Varieties. Currently, the majority of tenants who farm our properties grow either annual row crops dedicated to fresh produce, such as berries (e.g., strawberries and raspberries) and fresh vegetables (e.g., tomatoes, lettuce, and bell peppers), or certain permanent crops (e.g., pistachios, almonds, blueberries, and wine grapes). To a lesser extent, we also own farms growing certain commodity crops (e.g., corn and beans). We will seek to continue our recent expansion into other permanent crops and, to a lesser extent, commodity crops, while maintaining our focus on annual row-crop farms growing fresh produce and farms growing certain permanent crops.
Using Leverage.  To maximize our number of investments, we intend to borrow through loans secured by long-term mortgages on our properties, and we may also borrow funds on a short-term basis or incur other indebtedness.
Owning Mortgages on Farms and Farm-Related Real Estate.  In certain circumstances, we may make senior secured first lien mortgage loans (secured by farms or farm-related real estate) to farmers for the purchase of farmland, properties related to farming and for other farm related needs. We do not expect that, over time, our mortgages held will exceed 5.0% of the fair value of our total assets.
We intend to acquire more farmland and farm-related properties in our regions of focus that is already or will be leased to farmers, and we expect that most of our future tenants will be independent or corporate farming and business operations that are all unrelated to us. We intend to continue to lease the majority of our farms and farm-related facilities on a triple-net lease basis to tenants who sell their products through national corporate marketers-distributors. We may also acquire and lease commercial properties used by businesses that support farming communities. We expect to continue to earn rental income from our real estate assets.
Our Investment Process
Types of Investments
We expect that substantially all of our investments will continue to be comprised of income-producing agricultural real property, and we expect that the majority of our leases will continue to be structured as triple-net leases. We may also acquire properties used by businesses that support farming communities. Investments will not be restricted as to geographical areas, but we expect that most of our investments in farmland real estate will continue to be made within the U.S. Currently, our properties are located across 15 states in the U.S.
We anticipate that we will make substantially all of our investments through our Operating Partnership. Our Operating Partnership may acquire interests in real property in exchange for the issuance of shares of our common stock, OP Units, cash, or through a combination of the three. OP Units issued by our Operating Partnership will be redeemable at the option of the holder for cash or, at our election, shares of our common stock on a one-for-one basis at any time after holding the OP Units for one year. We currently, and may in the future, hold some or all of our interests in real properties through one or more wholly-owned subsidiaries, each classified as a qualified REIT subsidiary.
Property Acquisitions and Leasing
We anticipate that many of the farms and farm-related facilities we purchase will be acquired from independent farmers or agricultural companies and that they will simultaneously lease the properties back from us. These transactions will provide the tenants with an alternative to other financing sources, such as borrowing, mortgaging real property, or selling securities. We anticipate that some of our transactions will be in conjunction with acquisitions, recapitalizations, or other corporate transactions affecting our tenants. We also expect that many of the farms and farm-related facilities we acquire will be purchased from owners who do not farm the property but rather lease the property to other tenant-farmers. In situations such as these, we intend to have a lease in place prior to or simultaneously with acquiring the property. For a discussion of the risks associated with leasing property to leveraged tenants, see Part I, Item 1A,“Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Some of our tenants may be unable to pay rent, which could adversely affect our cash available to make distributions to our stockholders or otherwise impair the value of your investment.”
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We intend to own and lease primarily single-tenant, agricultural real property, and we may acquire and lease properties used by businesses that support farming communities. Generally, we will lease properties to tenants that our Adviser deems creditworthy under triple-net leases that will be full-recourse obligations of our tenants or their affiliates. Most of our agricultural leases have original terms ranging from 3 to 10 years for farms growing annual row crops and 7 to 15 years for properties growing permanent crops, often with options to extend the lease further. Rent is generally payable to us in advance on either an annual or semi-annual basis, with such rent typically subject to periodic escalation clauses provided for within the lease. The escalation clauses may specify fixed dollar amounts or percentage increases each year, or they may be variable, based on standard cost of living or inflation indices. In addition, some leases that are longer-term in nature may require a regular survey of comparable land rents, with the rent owed per the lease being adjusted to reflect then-current market rents. We also have leases that include a variable rent component based on the gross revenues earned on the respective farm. In these types of agreements, we will generally require the lease to include the guarantee of a minimum amount of rental income that satisfies our investment return criteria.
We believe that we can acquire farmland that we will be able to lease at annual rental rates providing net capitalization rates generally ranging from 4% to 7% or more of the properties’ market values. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to achieve this level of rental rates. Since rental contracts in the farming business for annual row crops are customarily short-term agreements, rental rates are typically renegotiated regularly to then-current market rates.
Underwriting Criteria and Due Diligence Process
Selecting the Property
We consider selecting the right properties to purchase or finance as one of the most important aspects of our business. Buying quality farmland that can be used to grow a variety of different crops and that is located in desirable locations is essential to our success.
Our Adviser works with real estate contacts in agricultural markets throughout the U.S. to assess available properties and farming areas. We believe that our Adviser is experienced in selecting valuable farmland and will use this expertise to identify promising properties. The following is a list of important factors in our selection of farmland:
Water availability.  Availability of water is essential to farming. We seek to purchase properties with ample access to water through an operating well on site or rights to use a well or other source that is located nearby. Additionally, we may, in the future, consider acquiring properties that rely on rainfall for water if the tenant on that property mitigates the drought risk by purchasing drought insurance. Typically, leases on properties that would rely on rainfall would be longer term in nature.
Soil composition. In addition to water, for farming efforts to be successful, the soil must be suitable for growing crops. We will not buy or finance any real property that does not have soil conditions that we believe are favorable for growing the crops farmed on the property, except to the extent that a portion of an otherwise suitable property, while not favorable for growing the crops farmed on the property, may be utilized to build structures used in the farming business, such as cooling facilities, packinghouses, distribution centers, greenhouses, and storage facilities.
Location. Farming also requires optimal climate and growing seasons. We typically seek to purchase properties in locations that take advantage of climate conditions that are needed to grow fresh produce row crops. We intend to continue to expand throughout the U.S. in locations with productive farmland and financially sound tenant-farmers.
Price.  We intend to purchase and finance properties that we believe are a good value and that we will be able to rent profitably for farming over the long term. Generally, the closer a property is located to urban developments, the higher the value of the property. As a result, properties that are currently located in close proximity to urban developments are likely to be too expensive to justify farming over an extended period of time, and, therefore, we are unlikely to invest in such properties.
Our Adviser will perform a due diligence review with respect to each potential property acquisition. Such review will include an evaluation of the physical condition of a property and an environmental site assessment to determine potential environmental liabilities associated with a property prior to its acquisition. One of the criteria that we look for is whether mineral rights to such property, which constitute a separate estate from the surface rights to the property, have been sold to a third party. We generally seek to invest in properties where mineral rights have not been sold to third parties; however, in cases where access to mineral rights would not affect the surface farming operations, we may enter into a lease agreement for the extraction of minerals or other subterranean resources, as we have done in the past on a few of our properties. We may seek to acquire mineral rights in connection with the acquisition of future properties to the extent such mineral rights have been sold off and the investment acquisition of such rights is considered to be favorable after our due diligence review. Despite the conduct of these reviews, there can be no assurance that hazardous substances or waste, as determined under present or future federal or state laws or regulations, will not be discovered on the property after we acquire it.
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Our Adviser will also physically inspect each property and the real estate surrounding it to estimate its value. Our Adviser’s due diligence will be primarily focused on valuing each property independent of its rental value to particular tenants to whom we plan to rent. The real estate valuations our Adviser performs will consider one or more of the following items:
The comparable value of similar real property in the same general area of the prospective property, to the extent possible.
The comparable real estate rental rates for similar properties in the same general area of the prospective property.
Alternative uses for the property to determine if there is another use for the property that would give it higher value, including potential future conversion to urban or suburban uses, such as commercial or residential development.
The assessed value as determined by the local real estate taxing authority.
In addition, our Adviser will generally supplement its valuation estimate with an independent real estate appraisal in connection with each investment that it considers. These appraisals may take into consideration, among other things, the terms and conditions of the particular lease transaction, the quality of the tenant’s credit and the conditions of the credit markets at the time the lease transaction is negotiated. However, in certain limited situations, the actual purchase price of a property may be greater or less than its appraised value. When appropriate, our Adviser may engage experts to undertake some or all of the due diligence efforts described above.
Upon completion of a due diligence investigation and a decision to proceed with an investment, the Adviser’s investment professionals who have primary responsibility for the investment present the investment opportunity to the Adviser’s investment committee. The investment committee then determines whether to pursue the potential investment. Prior to the closing of an investment, additional due diligence may be conducted on our behalf by attorneys, independent accountants, and other outside advisers, as appropriate.
Underwriting the Tenant, Due Diligence Process, and Negotiating Lease Provisions
In addition to property selection, underwriting the tenant that will lease the property is also an important aspect of our investment process. Our Adviser will evaluate the creditworthiness of the tenant and assess its ability to generate sufficient cash flow from its agricultural operations and other business operations, as applicable, to cover its payment obligations to us pursuant to our lease. The following is a list of criteria that our Adviser may consider when evaluating potential tenants for our properties, although not all criteria may be present for each lease:
Experience.  We believe that experience is the most significant characteristic when determining the creditworthiness of a tenant. Therefore, we seek to rent our properties to farmers that have an extensive track record of farming their property and particular crops successfully and, in some cases, to other tenants with meaningful management experience and a strong operating history.
Financial Strength.  We evaluate each potential tenant’s financial stability, considering factors such as its rating by a national credit rating agency, if any, management experience, industry position and fundamentals, operating history, and capital structure, as applicable. We primarily seek to rent to farming operations that have financial resources to invest in planting and harvesting their crops. We generally require annual financial statements of new tenants to evaluate the financial capability of the tenant and its ability to perform its obligations under the lease.
Adherence to Quality Standards.  We seek to lease our properties to those farmers that are committed to farming in a manner that will generate high-quality crops. We intend to identify such commitment through their track records of selling produce into established distribution chains and outlets.
Lease Provisions that Enhance and Protect Value. When appropriate, our Adviser attempts to include lease provisions that require our consent to specified tenant activity or require the tenant to satisfy specific operating tests. These provisions may include, for example, requiring the tenant to meet operational or financial covenants or to indemnify us against environmental and other contingent liabilities. We believe that these provisions serve to protect our investments from adverse changes in the operating and financial characteristics of a tenant that may impact its ability to satisfy its obligations to us or that could reduce the value of our properties. Our Adviser generally also seeks covenants requiring tenants to receive our consent prior to any change in control of the tenant.
Credit Enhancement. To mitigate risk and enhance the likelihood of tenants satisfying their lease obligations, our Adviser may also seek cross-default provisions if a tenant has multiple obligations to us or seek a letter of credit or a guaranty of lease obligations from each tenant’s corporate affiliates, if any. We believe that these types of credit enhancements, if obtained, provide us with additional financial security.
Diversification. Our Adviser will seek to diversify our portfolio to avoid dependence on any one particular tenant, geographic location, facility type or crop type. By diversifying our portfolio, our Adviser intends to reduce the adverse effect on our portfolio of a single underperforming investment or a downturn in any particular geographic region. Many of the areas in which we purchase or finance properties are likely to have their own microclimates and, although they appear to be in close proximity to one another, generally will not be similarly affected by weather or
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other natural occurrences at the same time. We currently own properties in 15 different states across the U.S., and over time, we expect to expand our geographic focus to other areas in the U.S., including the Pacific Northwest, Midwest, and Mid-Atlantic. We will also attempt to continue diversifying our portfolio of properties by seeking additional farmland that grows a variety of different crop types, while maintaining our current focus of owning and leasing farmland that grows fresh produce annual row crops and certain permanent crops. Refer to Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Overview—Portfolio Diversification,” for a summary of our portfolio diversification and concentrations.
While our Adviser seeks tenants it believes to be creditworthy, tenants are not required to meet any minimum rating established by an independent credit rating agency. Our Adviser’s standards for determining whether a particular tenant is creditworthy will vary in accordance with a variety of factors relating to specific prospective tenants. The creditworthiness of a tenant is determined on a tenant-by-tenant and case-by-case basis. Therefore, general standards for creditworthiness cannot be applied. We monitor our tenants’ credit quality on an ongoing basis by, among other things, periodically conducting site visits to the properties to ensure farming operations are taking place and to assess the general maintenance of the properties. To date, no significant changes to credit quality of our tenants have been identified, and our tenants generally continue to pay pursuant to the terms of their respective leases.
Use of Leverage
Our strategy is to use borrowings as a financing mechanism in amounts that we believe will maximize the return to our stockholders. We generally expect to enter into borrowing arrangements directly or indirectly through our Operating Partnership. Our governing documents and policies do not impose a limitation on the amount we may borrow against any single investment property, nor do they impose a limitation on our overall level of borrowing.
We believe that, by operating on a leveraged basis, we will have more funds available and, therefore, will be able to make more investments than would otherwise be possible. We believe that this will allow us to assemble a more diversified portfolio. Our Adviser and Administrator use their best efforts to obtain financing on the most favorable terms available to us.
We anticipate that our prospective lenders may also seek to include loan provisions whereby the termination or replacement of our Adviser would result in an event of default or an event requiring the immediate repayment of the full outstanding balance of the loan. The replacement or termination of our Adviser may, however, require the prior consent of a lender.
We may refinance properties during the term of a loan when, in the opinion of our Adviser, a decline in interest rates makes it advisable to prepay an existing mortgage loan, when an existing mortgage loan matures, or if an attractive investment becomes available and the proceeds from the refinancing can be used to make such investment. The benefits of the refinancing may include an increase in cash flow resulting from reduced debt service requirements, an increase in distributions to stockholders from proceeds of the refinancing, if any, or an increase in property ownership if some refinancing proceeds are reinvested in real estate.
Investment Limitations
There are numerous limitations on the manner in which we may invest our funds. We have adopted a policy that without the permission of our Board of Directors, we will not:
invest 50% or more of our total assets in a single property at the time of investment;
invest in real property owned by our Adviser, any of its affiliates or any entity in which our Adviser or any of its affiliates have invested;
invest in commodities or commodity futures contracts, with this limitation not being applicable to futures contracts when used solely for the purpose of hedging in connection with our ordinary business of investing in properties and making mortgage loans;
invest in contracts for the sale of real estate unless the contract is in recordable form and is appropriately recorded in the chain of title;
issue equity securities on a deferred payment basis or other similar arrangement;
grant warrants or options to purchase shares of our stock to our Adviser or its affiliates;
engage in trading, as compared with investment activities, or engage in the business of underwriting, or the agency distribution of, securities issued by other persons;
invest more than 5% of the value of our assets in the securities of any one issuer if the investment would cause us to fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT;
invest in securities representing more than 10% of the outstanding securities (by vote or value) of any one issuer if the investment would cause us to fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT; or
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acquire securities in any company holding investments or engaging in activities prohibited in the foregoing clauses.
Conflict of Interest Policy
We have adopted policies to reduce potential conflicts of interest. In addition, our directors are subject to certain provisions of Maryland law that are designed to minimize conflicts. However, we cannot provide assurance that these policies or provisions of law will reduce or eliminate the influence of these conflicts.
We have adopted a policy that, without the approval of a majority of our independent directors, we will not:
acquire from or sell to any of our officers or directors, the employees of our Adviser or Administrator, or any entity in which any of our officers, directors, or such employees has an interest of more than 5%, any assets or other property;
borrow from any of our directors or officers, the employees of our Adviser or Administrator, or any entity in which any of our officers, directors, or such employees has an interest of more than 5%; or
engage in any other transaction with any of our directors or officers, the employees of our Adviser or Administrator, or any entity in which any of our directors, officers, or such employees has an interest of more than 5%.
Consistent with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, we will not extend credit, or arrange for the extension of credit, to any of our directors and officers. Under the Maryland General Corporation Law, a contract or other transaction between us and one of our directors or officers or any other entity in which one of our directors or officers is also a director or officer or has a material financial interest is not void or voidable solely on the grounds of the common directorship or interest, the fact that the director or officer was present at the meeting at which the contract or transaction was approved or the fact that the director’s vote was counted in favor of the contract or transaction if:
the material facts relating to the common directorship or interest and as to the transaction are disclosed to our Board of Directors or a committee of our Board, and our Board or the committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors not interested in the contract or transaction, even if the disinterested directors do not constitute a quorum of the Board or committee;
the fact of the common directorship or interest is disclosed to our stockholders entitled to vote on the contract or transaction, and the contract or transaction is approved or ratified by a majority of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the matter, other than shares owned of record or beneficially by the interested director, corporation or entity; or
the contract or transaction is fair and reasonable to us as of the time authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee or the stockholders.
Our policy also prohibits us from purchasing any real property from, or co-investing in any real property with, our Adviser, any of its affiliates, or any business in which our Adviser or any of its subsidiaries have invested. If we decide to change this policy on co-investments with our Adviser or its affiliates, we will seek approval of our independent directors.
Code of Ethics
We have adopted a code of ethics and business conduct applicable to all personnel of our Adviser and Administrator that complies with the guidelines set forth in Item 406 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. This code establishes procedures for personal investments, restricts certain transactions by such personnel, and requires the reporting of certain transactions and holdings by such personnel. A copy of this code is available for review, free of charge, on the Investors section of our website at www.GladstoneLand.com. The information contained on or connected to our website is not incorporated by reference into this Form 10-K and should not be considered part of this or any other report that we file with or furnish to the SEC. We intend to provide any required disclosure of any amendments to or waivers of this code of ethics by posting information regarding any such amendment or waiver to our website.
Our Adviser and Administrator
We are externally managed by our Adviser. The officers, directors, and employees of our Adviser have significant experience in making investments in and lending to businesses of all sizes, including investing in real estate and making mortgage loans. We have entered into an investment advisory agreement with our Adviser, which was most recently amended and restated effective July 1, 2021 (the “Current Advisory Agreement”), under which our Adviser is responsible for managing our assets and liabilities, for operating our business on a day-to-day basis, and for identifying, evaluating, negotiating, and consummating investment transactions consistent with our investment policies as determined by our Board of Directors from time to time.
Our Administrator employs our chief financial officer, treasurer, chief compliance officer, general counsel and secretary (who also serves as our Administrator’s president, general counsel, and secretary), and their respective staffs and provides
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administrative services to us under the amended and restated Administration Agreement entered into on February 1, 2013 (the “Administration Agreement”).
David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer, president, and largest stockholder, is also the chairman, chief executive officer, and the controlling stockholder of our Adviser and our Administrator. Terry Lee Brubaker, our chief operating officer, also serves as vice chairman, chief operating officer, and a member of the Board of Directors for our Adviser and Administrator.
Our Adviser has an investment committee that evaluates and approves each of our investments. This investment committee is currently comprised of Messrs. Gladstone, Brubaker, and Reiman; Mr. John Sateri, who is a managing director of our Adviser; and Ms. Laura Gladstone, who is a managing director of our Adviser. We believe that the review process of our Adviser’s investment committee gives us a competitive advantage over other agricultural real estate companies because of the substantial experience that the members possess and their unique perspective in evaluating the blend of corporate credit, real estate, and lease terms that collectively combine to provide an acceptable risk for our investments.
Our Adviser’s board of directors has empowered the investment committee to authorize and approve our investments, subject to the terms of the Current Advisory Agreement. Before we acquire any property, the proposed transaction is be reviewed by the investment committee to ensure that, in its view, the transaction satisfies our investment criteria and is within our investment policies. Approval by the investment committee will generally be the final step in the property acquisition approval process, although the separate approval of our Board of Directors is required in certain circumstances, which are described below.
Our Adviser and Administrator are headquartered in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington D.C., and our Adviser also has offices in several other states. Refer to Part II, Item 7, “Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Overview—Our Adviser and Administrator” of this Form 10-K for a detailed discussion on the fee structure of each of the Adviser and Administrator.
Adviser Duties and Authority under the Current Advisory Agreement
Under the terms of the Current Advisory Agreement, our Adviser is required to present to us investment opportunities consistent with our investment policies and objectives as adopted by our Board of Directors. In performing its duties, our Adviser, either directly or indirectly by engaging an affiliate:
finds, evaluates, presents, and recommends to us a continuing series of real estate investment opportunities consistent with our investment policies and objectives;
provides advice to us and acts on our behalf with respect to the negotiation, acquisition, financing, refinancing, holding, leasing, and disposition of real estate investments;
enters into contracts to purchase real estate on our behalf in compliance with our investment procedures, objectives, and policies, subject to approval of our Board of Directors, where required;
takes the actions and obtains the services necessary to effect the negotiation, acquisition, financing, refinancing holding, leasing, and disposition of real estate investments; and
provides day-to-day management of our real estate activities and other administrative services.
Our Board of Directors has authorized our Adviser to make investments in any property on our behalf without the prior approval of our Board if the following conditions are satisfied:
our Adviser has determined that the total cost of the property does not exceed its determined value; and
our Adviser has provided us with a representation that the property, in conjunction with our other investments and proposed investments, is reasonably expected to fulfill our investment objectives and policies as established by our Board of Directors then in effect.
The actual terms and conditions of transactions involving investments in properties shall be determined in the sole discretion of our Adviser, subject at all times to compliance with the foregoing requirements. Some types of transactions, including the following, require the prior approval of our Board of Directors, including a majority of our independent directors:
any acquisition which at the time of investment would have a cost exceeding 50% of our total assets; and
transactions that involve conflicts of interest with our Adviser (other than reimbursement of expenses in accordance with the Current Advisory Agreement).
Our Adviser and Administrator also engage in other business ventures and, as a result, certain (but not all) of their resources are not dedicated exclusively to our business. For example, our Adviser and Administrator also serve as the external adviser and administrator, respectively, to Gladstone Capital Corporation (“Gladstone Capital”) and Gladstone Investment Corporation (“Gladstone Investment”), both publicly-traded business development companies affiliated with us, and Gladstone Commercial Corporation (“Gladstone Commercial”), a publicly-traded REIT affiliated with us. However, under the Current Advisory
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Agreement, our Adviser is required to devote sufficient resources to the administration of our affairs to discharge its obligations under the agreement. The Current Advisory Agreement is not assignable or transferable by either us or our Adviser without the consent of the other party, except that our Adviser may assign the Current Advisory Agreement to an affiliate for whom our Adviser agrees to guarantee its obligations to us.
Gladstone Securities
Gladstone Securities, LLC (“Gladstone Securities”) is a privately-held broker-dealer and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and insured by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Gladstone Securities is an affiliate of ours, as its parent company is owned and controlled by David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer, and president. Mr. Gladstone also serves on the board of managers of Gladstone Securities. In addition, Michael LiCalsi, our General Counsel and Secretary, serves in several capacities for Gladstone Securities, serving as Chief Legal Officer, Secretary, and a member of its board of managers since 2010 and a managing principal since 2011.
Financing Arrangement Agreement
On April 11, 2017, we entered into an agreement with Gladstone Securities for it to act as our non-exclusive agent to assist us with arranging financing for our properties (the “Financing Arrangement Agreement”). Pursuant to the agreement, we pay Gladstone Securities a financing fee in connection with the services it provides to us for securing financing on our properties. Refer to Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—Gladstone Securities,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the fees to be paid to Gladstone Securities pursuant to the Financing Arrangement Agreement.
Dealer-Manager Agreements
In connection with the continuous public offering of our Series B Preferred Stock (which was completed in March 2020), our Series C Preferred Stock (which was completed in December 2022), and our Series E Preferred Stock (which offering is ongoing), we entered into certain dealer-manager agreements with Gladstone Securities, whereby Gladstone Securities served or serves, as appropriate, as our exclusive dealer-manager. Pursuant to each of these dealer-manager agreements, Gladstone Securities provided or provides certain sales, promotional, and marketing services to us in connection with the offering of the respective stock. Refer to Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—Gladstone Securities,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for a discussion of the fees and commissions paid to Gladstone Securities pursuant to each of these dealer-manager agreements.
Human Capital Management
We do not currently have any employees and do not expect to have any employees in the foreseeable future. Currently, services necessary for our business are provided by individuals who are employees of our Adviser and our Administrator pursuant to the terms of the Current Advisory Agreement and the Administration Agreement, respectively. Each of our executive officers is an employee or executive officer, or both, of each our Adviser and our Administrator. We expect that approximately 15 to 25 full-time employees of our Adviser and our Administrator will spend substantial time on our matters during the 2024 calendar year. Our CFO, accounting team, and the employees of our Adviser who manage our assets and investments spend all of their time on our matters. To the extent that we acquire more investments, we anticipate that the number of employees of our Adviser and our Administrator who devote time to our matters will increase and the number of our Adviser’s employees working out of local offices, if any, where we buy land will also increase.
As of December 31, 2023, our Adviser and Administrator, collectively, had 69 full-time employees. A breakdown thereof is summarized by functional area in the table below:
Number of
Individuals
  Functional Area
13  Executive Management
35  Investment Management, Portfolio Management, and Due Diligence
21  Administration, Accounting, Compliance, Human Resources, Legal, and Treasury
The Adviser and the Administrator aim to attract and retain capable advisory and administrative personnel, respectively, by offering competitive base salaries, benefits, and bonus structure and by providing employees with appropriate opportunities for professional development and growth.
Competition
We face competition for farmland acreage from many different entities, including, but not limited to, developers, municipalities, individual farmers, agriculture corporations, institutional investors, and others. Investment firms that we might compete
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directly against could include agricultural investment firms, such as Hancock Agricultural Investment Group, Prudential Agricultural Investments, and UBS AgriVest, LLC. These firms engage in the acquisition, asset management, valuation, and disposition of farmland properties. Further competition may also come from other agricultural REITs, both publicly-traded (e.g., Farmland Partners, Inc.) and privately-held (e.g., Iroquois Valley Farmland REIT, PBC); other agricultural-focused privately-held funds, such as AgIS Capital, LLC, and Homestead Capital; and various online farmland crowdfunding platforms (e.g., AcreTrader, FarmTogether).
Government Regulations
We own, manage, acquire, and develop our properties in compliance with the laws and regulations of the United States, as well as state and local laws and regulations in the jurisdictions where our properties are located, which may differ among jurisdictions. Developments related to public health emergencies, including laws and regulations implemented by federal governmental authorities or state and local governmental authorities in jurisdictions where our properties are located in response to such public health emergencies, may impact our ability to operate our business, or those of our tenants, in the ordinary course, which may materially affect our results of operations for the year ending December 31, 2024. Otherwise, we do not expect that compliance with the various laws and regulations we are subject to will have a material effect on our capital expenditures, results of operations, or competitive position for the year ending December 31, 2024, as compared to prior periods.
Additionally, as an owner of real estate, we are subject to various federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, and ordinances and also could be liable to third parties resulting from environmental contamination or noncompliance at our properties. Environmental laws often impose liability without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of or was responsible for the presence of the contaminants, and the costs of any required investigation or cleanup of these substances could be substantial. The liability is generally not limited under such laws and could exceed the property’s value and the aggregate assets of the liable party. The presence of contamination or the failure to remediate contamination at our properties also may expose us to third-party liability for personal injury or property damage or adversely affect our ability to lease the real property or to borrow using the real estate as collateral.
These and other risks related to governmental regulation and environmental matters are described in more detail in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Form 10-K.
Other Required Financial Information
For other required financial information related to our properties, concentrations, segments, and operations, refer to our consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto, included within this Form 10-K.
Available Information
Copies of each of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements, and amendments, if any, to those reports filed or furnished with the SEC, pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available free of charge through our website at www.GladstoneLand.com. A request for any of these reports may also be submitted to us by sending a written request addressed to Investor Relations, Gladstone Land Corporation, 1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100, McLean, VA, 22102, or by calling our toll-free investor relations line at 1-866-366-5745. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.SEC.gov.
ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS
An investment in our securities involves a number of significant risks and other factors relating to our structure and investment objectives. As a result, we cannot assure you that we will achieve our investment objectives. You should consider carefully the following information as an investor and/or prospective investor in our securities. The risks described below may not be the only risks we face. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impact our business operations. If any of these risks occur, our business prospects, financial condition, or results of operations could suffer, the market price of our capital stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment in our capital stock.
Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations
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Our real estate portfolio is concentrated across a limited number of states, which subjects us to an increased risk of significant loss if adverse weather, economic, or regulatory changes or developments in the markets in which our properties are located occur.
Since our current real estate profile is concentrated across a limited number of states, we are subject to adverse changes in the political or regulatory climate in those states or specific counties where our properties are located that could adversely affect our real estate portfolio and our ability to lease properties. The geographic concentration of our portfolio could also cause us to be more susceptible to adverse weather, economic or regulatory changes, or developments in the markets in which our properties are located than if we owned a more geographically-diverse portfolio, which could materially and adversely affect the value of our farms and our ability to lease our farms on favorable terms or at all.
We may not be successful in identifying and consummating additional suitable acquisitions that meet our investment criteria, which may impede our growth and negatively affect our results of operations.
We continue to actively seek and evaluate other farm properties for potential purchase, but there is no guarantee that we will be able to continue to find and acquire properties that meet our investment criteria. We expect that a significant number of our future tenants will be independent farming operations, about which there is generally little or no publicly available operating and financial information. As a result, we rely on our Adviser to perform due diligence investigations of these tenants, their operations, and their prospects. We may not learn all of the material information we need to know regarding these businesses through our investigations. As a result, it is possible that we could lease properties to tenants that ultimately are unable to pay rent to us, which could adversely impact the amount available for distributions.
Investments in development farmland, or farmland planted with immature permanent crops rather than annual crops or mature permanent crops, may have inherent risks, including those relating to the longer period between development and commercial productivity for certain permanent crop development farms, the cost of development, profitability of newly-developed farms, higher ongoing costs, and delayed development, all of which could adversely impact our results of operations and cash flow.
On a limited basis, we have invested in certain properties requiring further development before reaching commercial productivity, such as the development of an almond orchard, or in properties with immature permanent plantings. Such investments, and any future investments in property developments, involves risks that are different and, in most cases, greater than the risks associated with our acquisition of fully-developed and commercially-productive farms. In addition to the risks associated with real estate investments in general, as described elsewhere in this Form 10-K, the risks associated with our development farms include, among other things:
significant time lag between commencement of development and commercial productivity for permanent crop development farms subjects us to greater risks due to fluctuations in the general economy, crop prices, and adverse weather conditions;
expenditure of money and time on development that may not be completed;
inability to achieve rental rates per acre at newly-developed farms to make the properties profitable;
higher than estimated costs, including labor and planting, irrigation or other related costs; and
possible delays in development due to a number of factors, including weather, labor disruptions, regulatory approvals, acts of terror or other acts of violence, or acts of God (such as fires, earthquakes, or floods).
All of our properties undergoing development or planted with immature permanent crops are currently leased and earning income. However, with regard to future acquisitions of such properties, the time frame required for development and for the farms to become commercially productive means that we may not be able to lease the farms and, in turn, generate revenue with respect to such farms for several years. If any of the above events occur, the development of such farms may hinder our growth and have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flow. In addition, new development farms, regardless of whether or not they are ultimately productive, typically require substantial time and attention from management.
We currently lease many of our properties to medium-sized, independent farming operations and agricultural businesses, which may have limited financial and personnel resources and, therefore, may be less stable than larger companies, which could impact our ability to generate rental revenue.
We expect to lease a significant number of our properties to medium-sized farming operations and related agricultural businesses, which will expose us to a number of risks specifically related to these entities. For example, medium-sized agricultural businesses may be more likely than larger farming operations to have difficulty making lease payments when they experience adverse events. They also tend to experience significant fluctuations in their operating results and to be more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns. In addition, our target tenants may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, which could lead to price pressure on crops that could lower our tenants’ income.
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Furthermore, the success of a medium-sized business may also depend on the management talents and efforts of one or a small group of persons. The death, disability or resignation of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on our tenant and, in turn, on us.
Our Adviser has broad authority to make acquisitions and dispositions of properties, and there can be no assurance that, in the future, we will be able to continue to enter into definitive agreements to purchase properties, complete acquisitions, or dispose of properties on favorable terms. Our stockholders are unable to evaluate the economic merits of our investments or the terms of any dispositions of properties.
Our Adviser has broad authority to make acquisitions and dispositions of properties. There can be no assurance that our Adviser will be able to continue to identify or negotiate acceptable terms for the acquisition or dispositions of properties or that we will be able to continue to acquire or dispose of such properties on favorable terms. We may compete with other purchasers for attractive properties. Further factors that could cause us not to purchase one or more properties that initially meet our investment criteria include our potential inability to agree to definitive purchase terms with the prospective sellers and our discovery of problems with the properties in our due diligence investigations. Factors that could cause us to be unable to dispose of a property on favorable terms include market conditions and competition. Any significant impediment to continue to identify and make investments that fit into our investment criteria or dispose of investments during suitable market conditions would have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue to generate cash flow and make distributions to our stockholders.
Our cash available for distribution to stockholders may not be sufficient to pay anticipated distributions, nor can we assure you of our ability to make distributions in the future, and we may need to borrow to make such distributions or may not be able to make such distributions at all.
To remain competitive with alternative investments, our distribution rate may exceed our cash available for distribution, including cash generated from operations. In the event this happens, we intend to fund the difference out of any excess cash on hand or from borrowings under our revolving credit facility. If we do not have sufficient cash available for distribution generated by our assets to pay the distributions set by our Board of Directors, or if cash available for distribution decreases in future periods, the market price of our common stock could decrease.
All distributions will be made at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on our earnings, our financial condition, whether we are able to maintain our qualification as a REIT, and other factors as our Board of Directors may deem relevant from time to time. We may not be able to make distributions in the future. In addition, some of our distributions may include a return of capital. To the extent that our Board of Directors approves distributions in excess of our then current and accumulated earnings and profits, these excess distributions would generally be considered a return of capital for federal income tax purposes to the extent of your adjusted tax basis in your shares. A return of capital is not taxable, but it has the effect of reducing your adjusted tax basis in your investment. To the extent that distributions exceed the adjusted tax basis of your shares, such excess will be treated for tax purposes as a gain from the sale or exchange of your shares. If we borrow to fund distributions, our future interest costs would increase, thereby reducing our earnings and cash available for distribution from what they otherwise would have been.
Some of our tenants may be unable to pay rent, which could adversely affect our cash available to make distributions to our stockholders or otherwise impair the value of your investment.
We expect that single tenants will continue to occupy most of our farms, and, therefore, the success of our investments will continue to be materially dependent on the financial stability of these tenants. Some of our tenants may have been recently restructured using leverage acquired in a leveraged transaction, may otherwise be subject to significant debt obligations, or may have been adversely impacted by public health emergencies. Tenants that are subject to significant debt obligations may be unable to make their rent payments if there are adverse changes in their businesses or in general economic conditions. Tenants that have been impacted adversely by public health emergencies may not be able to make timely rental payments due to labor shortages, supply chain issues, or due to government-mandated lockdowns or other measures taken to address such public health emergencies. Tenants that have experienced leveraged restructurings or acquisitions will generally have substantially greater debt and substantially lower net worth than they had prior to the leveraged transaction. In addition, the payment of rent and debt service may reduce the working capital available to leveraged entities and prevent them from devoting the resources necessary to remain competitive in their industries. In situations where management of the tenant will change after a transaction, it may be difficult for our Adviser to determine with certainty the likelihood of the tenant’s business success and of it being able to pay rent throughout the lease term. These companies are more vulnerable to adverse conditions in their businesses or industries and economic conditions generally, as well as to increases in interest rates. In addition, these companies’ revenues and expenses may fluctuate according to the growing season, which may impact their ability to make regular lease payments.
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Any lease payment defaults by a tenant could adversely affect our cash flows and cause us to reduce the amount of distributions to stockholders. In the event of a default by a tenant, we may also experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing our property.
Some of our tenants could be susceptible to bankruptcy, which would affect our ability to generate rents from them and therefore negatively affect our results of operations.
In addition to the risk of tenants being unable to make regular rent payments, certain of our tenants who may depend on debt and leverage could be especially susceptible to bankruptcy in the event that their cash flows are insufficient to satisfy their debt. Any bankruptcy of one of our tenants would result in a loss of lease payments to us, as well as an increase in our costs to carry the property.
Additionally, under bankruptcy law, a tenant who is the subject of bankruptcy proceedings has the option of continuing or terminating any unexpired lease. If a bankrupt tenant terminates a lease with us, any claim we might have for breach of the lease, excluding a claim against collateral securing the lease, would be treated as a general unsecured claim. Our claim would likely be capped at the amount the tenant owed us for unpaid rent prior to the bankruptcy unrelated to the termination, plus the greater of one year of lease payments or 15% of the remaining lease payments payable under the lease, but in no case more than three years of lease payments. In addition, a bankruptcy court could re-characterize a net lease transaction as a secured lending transaction. If that were to occur, we would not be treated as the owner of the property, but might have additional rights as a secured creditor. This would mean our claim in bankruptcy court would only be for the amount we paid for the property, which could adversely impact our financial condition.
Because we expect to continue to enter into some short-term leases, we may continue to be more susceptible to any decreases in prevailing market rental rates than would be the case with long-term leases, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
For our properties that are farmed for annual row crops, we intend to primarily enter into leases with independent and corporate farming operations having terms generally ranging from 3 to 10 years. As a result, we will be required to frequently re-lease our properties upon the expiration of our leases. This will subject our business to near term fluctuations in market rental rates, and we will be more susceptible to declines in market rental rates than we would be if we were to enter into longer-term leases. As a result, any decreases in the prevailing market rental rates in the geographic areas in which we own properties could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash available for distribution to stockholders.
Our investments in properties with longer-term leases (i.e., five years or more), could expose us to various risks, including interest rate risk and the risk of being unable to take advantage of prevailing market rates, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash available for distribution to stockholders.
When entering into longer-term leases in which the rental rate is generally fixed, we intend to incorporate at least one of a variety of forms of rent escalators into the lease, including annual rent escalations or market reset periods. Annual rent escalations may be either a fixed amount each year or variable based on standard cost of living or inflation indices. In addition, some longer-term leases may require a regular survey of comparable land rents, with the rent owed per the lease being adjusted upward to reflect current market rents. If, in the future, we receive a significant portion of our revenues under longer-term leases in which the rental rate is generally fixed, subject to rent escalations described above, we would be subject to interest rate risk in the event interest rates rise at a greater rate than any potential rent escalations. In addition, by entering into longer-term leases, we would be subject to the risk that we would not be able to increase our rental rates if prevailing land values or rental rates have increased. Any inability to take advantage of increases in prevailing land values or rental rates could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash available for distribution to stockholders.
Our investments in farms subject to leases with a participation rent component based on the annual gross revenues earned on the respective farm means that a portion of our cash flow is exposed to various risks, including risks related to declining crop prices and lower-than-average crop production, which could have a material adverse effect on the amount of rent we can collect and, consequently, our cash flow and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We own several farms subject to leases that include a participation rent component based on the annual gross revenues earned on the respective farm; however, the majority of these leases also include a guarantee of a minimum amount of rental income that generally satisfies our investment return criteria. While we do not expect participation rents to make up a significant portion of our overall leased portfolio, we intend to enter into additional leases with participation rent components. We anticipate that the majority of such leases will continue to have a floor that guarantees a minimum amount of rental income that generally satisfies our investment return criteria; however, such leases will still be impacted by factors related to the success of the farmer-tenant’s harvest, including, but not limited to, declining crop prices and lower-than-average crop production, that may result in us receiving less rent than anticipated or projected when entering into such leases. A reduction in the rent we receive could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
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Our investments in farmland used for permanent crops have a higher risk profile than farmland used for annual row crops.
Since our IPO, we have expanded our investment focus to include farms used for permanent crops, and we intend to continue to add to our investments in farmland used for permanent crops in the future. Permanent crops have plant structures (such as trees, vines, or bushes) that produce yearly crops without being replanted. Examples include almonds, apples, blueberries, figs, pistachios, oranges, and table and wine grapes. Permanent crops generally involve more risk than annual row crops because permanent crops require more time and capital to plant and cultivate. As a result, permanent crops are generally more expensive to replace and more susceptible to disease and poor weather. If a farmer loses a permanent crop to any natural disaster, such as drought, flooding, fire, or disease, there would generally be significant time and capital needed to return the land to commercial production because a tree, bush, or vine may take years to grow before bearing fruit.
Permanent crop farmland also prevents the farmer from being able to rotate crop types to keep up with changing market conditions or changes in the weather or soil. If demand for one type of permanent crop decreases, the permanent crop farmer cannot easily convert the farm to another type of crop because permanent crop farmland is dedicated to one crop during the lifespan of the trees, bushes, or vines and therefore cannot easily be rotated to adapt to changing environmental or market conditions.
In addition, permanent crops, which can generally endure long periods of time from harvest to consumption, allow for global shipment and trade. As a result, permanent crops are usually less insulated from the global produce market volatility than annual row crops. This will generally provide for less price stability of the harvested crop and therefore less stability of the underlying land value for cropland producing permanent crops. As a result, permanent crop farms typically have a higher risk profile than annual row crop farms.
Our real estate investments will consist of agricultural properties that may be difficult to sell or re-lease upon tenant defaults or early lease terminations, either of which would adversely affect returns to stockholders.
We intend to focus our investments on agricultural properties. These types of properties are relatively illiquid compared to other types of real estate and financial assets. This illiquidity could limit our ability to quickly dispose of properties in response to changes in economic or other conditions. With these kinds of properties, if the current lease is terminated or not renewed, we may be required to renovate the property to the extent we have buildings on the property, or to make rent concessions to lease the property to another tenant or sell the property. In addition, in the event we are forced to sell the property, we may have difficulty finding qualified purchasers. These and other limitations may affect our ability to sell or re-lease properties without adversely affecting returns to our stockholders.
If we sell properties and provide financing to purchasers, defaults by the purchasers would decrease our cash flows and limit our ability to make distributions.
In some instances, we may sell our properties by providing financing to purchasers who may then also operate the farm. When we provide financing to purchasers, we may bear the risk that the purchaser may default, which could negatively impact our liquidity and thus our ability to either distribute the proceeds from the sale to our stockholders or reinvest the sale proceeds in other property acquisitions.
If our properties do not have access to adequate water supplies, it could harm our ability to lease the properties for farming, thereby adversely affecting our ability to generate returns on our properties.
To lease the cropland that we intend to acquire, these properties will require access to sufficient water to make them suitable for farming. Additionally, the ability of our current tenants to make their rental payments is dependent upon sufficient access to water. Although we expect to acquire properties with sufficient water access, should the need arise for additional wells from which to obtain water, we likely would be required to obtain permits prior to drilling such wells. Permits for drilling water wells are required by state and county regulations, and such permits may be difficult to obtain due to the limited supply of water in areas where we expect to acquire properties, such as the farming regions of California. Similarly, our properties may be subject to governmental regulations relating to the quality and disposition of rainwater runoff or other water to be used for irrigation. In such case, we could incur costs necessary to retain this water. If we are unable to obtain or maintain sufficient water supply for our properties, our ability to lease them for farming would be seriously impaired, which would have a material adverse impact on the value of our assets and our results of operations. If, in the future, we invest in farmland that depends upon rain water rather than local water access, our tenants on that farmland may be susceptible to extended droughts, and any failure on the part of such tenants to procure adequate drought insurance would impact the ability of such tenants to make rental payments, which would have a material adverse impact on our ability to generate returns on our properties.
Our agricultural properties are subject to adverse weather conditions, seasonal variability, crop disease and other contaminants, which may affect our tenants’ ability to pay rent and thereby have an adverse effect on our results of operations and our ability to make distributions to stockholders.
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Fresh produce, including produce used in canning and other packaged food operations, is vulnerable to adverse weather conditions, including windstorms, floods, drought and temperature extremes, which are common but difficult to predict. Because fresh produce is highly perishable and generally must be brought to market and sold soon after harvest, unfavorable growing conditions can reduce both crop size and crop quality. Seasonal factors, including supply and consumer demand, may also have an effect on the crops grown by our tenants. In extreme cases, entire harvests may be lost in some geographic areas. Further, certain of our properties are reliant upon groundwater, as they are not located within any state or federal water districts and, thus, are not limited by any government-regulated restrictions.
Fresh produce is also vulnerable to crop disease, pests, and other contaminants. Damages to tenants’ crops from crop disease and pests may vary in severity and effect, depending on the stage of production at the time of infection or infestation, the type of treatment applied and environmental conditions. The costs to control these infestations vary depending on the severity of the damage and the extent of the plantings affected. These infestations can increase costs and decrease revenues of our tenants. Tenants may also incur losses from product recalls due to other contaminants that may cause food borne illness. It is difficult to predict the occurrence or severity of such product recalls as well as the impact of these upon our tenants. Although we do not expect that a significant portion of our rental payments will be based on the quality of our tenants’ harvests, any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our tenants’ ability to pay rent to us, which in turn could have a material adverse effect on our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
As permanent crops produce yearly crops without being replanted, they are more expensive to replace and more susceptible to disease and poor weather than annual row crops. If a farmer loses a permanent crop to any natural disaster, such as drought, flooding, fire or disease, there would generally be significant time and capital needed to return the land to production because a tree or vine may take years to grow before bearing fruit. Permanent crop farmland also prevents the farmer from being able to rotate crop types to keep up with changing market conditions or changes to the weather or soil. If demand for one type of permanent crop decreases, the permanent crop farmer cannot easily convert the farm to another type of crop because permanent crop farmland is dedicated to one crop during the lifespan of the trees or vines and therefore cannot easily be rotated to adapt to changing environmental or market conditions. As a result, the risks associated with weather conditions, seasonal variability, crop disease and other contaminants are magnified in the case of permanent crops.
Our operating results and the value of our properties may be impacted by future climate changes, adversely impacting the value of our properties and our ability to generate rental revenue.
In addition to the general risks that adverse weather conditions will pose for the tenants of our properties and their subsequent ability to comply with the terms of their leases, the value of our properties will potentially be subject to risks associated with long-term effects of climate change. Many climatologists predict increases in average temperatures, more extreme temperatures and increases in volatile weather over time. The effects of climate change may be more significant along coastlines, such as in the California coastal areas where we partially focus our acquisition efforts, due to rising sea levels resulting from the melting of polar ice caps, which could result in increased risk of coastal erosion, flooding, degradation in the availability and quality of groundwater aquifers, and expanding agricultural weed and pest populations. As a result, the effects of climate change could make our properties less suitable for farming or other alternative uses, which could adversely impact the value of our properties, our ability to generate rental revenue from leasing our properties and our cash available for distribution to stockholders. Climate change may also have indirect effects on our business by increasing the cost of, or availability of, property insurance on terms we find acceptable and increasing the cost of energy at our properties.
Because we must distribute a substantial portion of our net income to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we will be largely dependent on third-party sources of capital to fund our future capital needs.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, we generally must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our taxable income each year, excluding net capital gains. Because of this distribution requirement, it is not likely that we will be able to fund a significant portion of our future capital needs, including property acquisitions, from retained earnings. Therefore, we may acquire additional capital from the issuance of securities senior to our common shares, including borrowings or other indebtedness, preferred shares (such as our Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Term Preferred Stock, or Series E Preferred Stock), or the issuance of other securities. This capital may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Our access to additional capital depends on a number of things, including the market’s perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings.
To the extent we issue debt securities, other instruments of indebtedness, or additional preferred stock or borrow additional money from banks or other financial institutions, we will be additionally exposed to risks associated with leverage, including increased risk of loss. If we issue additional preferred securities that rank senior to our common shares in our capital structure, the holders of such preferred securities may have separate voting rights and other rights, preferences, or privileges, economic and otherwise, more favorable than those of our common shares and our currently-designated preferred securities, and the issuance of such preferred securities could have the effect of delaying, deferring, or preventing a transaction or a change of control that might involve a premium price for common stockholders.
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Any inability to access additional financing on terms that are favorable to us may adversely affect our ability to grow and our business generally.
We may not be able to raise sufficient capital or borrow money in sufficient amounts or on sufficiently favorable terms necessary to attain the optimal degree of leverage to operate our business, which may have an adverse effect on our operations and ability to pay distributions.
Our ability to raise additional capital in the markets may be limited due to market conditions and applicable SEC regulations. Our business and acquisition strategies rely heavily on borrowing funds, so that we may make more investments than would otherwise be possible to maximize potential returns to stockholders. We may borrow on a secured or unsecured basis. Our charter and bylaws do not impose any limitation on our borrowing. Our ability to achieve our investment objectives will be affected by our ability to borrow money in sufficient amounts and on favorable terms, which may result in us becoming highly leveraged. We expect that we will borrow money that will be secured by our properties and that these financing arrangements will contain customary covenants such as those that limit our ability, without the prior consent of the lender, to further mortgage the applicable property or to discontinue insurance coverage. In addition, any credit facility we might enter into is likely to contain certain customary restrictions, requirements and other limitations on our ability to incur indebtedness, and will specify debt ratios that we will be required to maintain. Accordingly, we may be unable to obtain the degree of leverage that we believe to be optimal, which may cause us to have less cash for distributions to stockholders. Our use of leverage could also make us more vulnerable to a downturn in our business or the economy generally and a significant increase in the ratio of our indebtedness to our assets may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Our income from operations may not be enough to cover our debt service obligations, which may affect distributions to stockholders or cause us to incur losses.
If the income generated by our properties and other assets fails to cover our debt service, we could be forced to reduce or eliminate distributions to our stockholders and may experience losses. Some of our debt financing arrangements may require us to make lump-sum, or balloon, payments at maturity. If our income from operations does not cover a balloon payment, our ability to make the balloon payment at maturity could depend upon our ability to obtain additional financing or to sell the financed property. At the time the balloon payment is due, we may not be able to refinance the balloon payment on terms as favorable as the original loan or sell the property at a price sufficient to make the balloon payment, which would likely have a material adverse effect on our financial condition.
We have secured borrowings, which would have a risk of loss of the property securing such loan upon foreclosure.
We have multiple borrowing facilities in place, and our total borrowings are secured by the majority of the farms we own. If we are unable to make our debt payments as required, either under our current credit facilities or any future facilities, a lender could foreclose on certain of the properties securing its loan. This could cause us to lose part or all of our investment in the property, which in turn could cause the value of our common stock, any of our currently-designated preferred securities, or the distributions to our stockholders to be reduced or delayed.
As we consider additional debt financing from third-party lenders, our assets may become highly leveraged, which may result in losses.
There is no limitation imposed by our charter or bylaws on our borrowings. An increased amount of leverage may expose us to cash flow problems if rental income decreases. Under those circumstances, in order to pay our debt obligations, including distribution and dividend payments to stockholders, we might be required to sell properties at a loss or be unable to make distributions or decrease distributions to our stockholders. A failure to pay amounts due to lenders or redeem shares of our Series D Term Preferred Stock under the mandatory redemption requirement may result in a default on our obligations and result in certain penalties, such as increased interest rates. Additionally, our degree of leverage could adversely affect our ability to obtain additional financing and may have an adverse effect on the public market price of shares of our publicly-traded common stock or currently-designated preferred securities.
We face a risk from the fact that certain of our properties are cross-collateralized.
The mortgages on certain of our properties are cross-collateralized. To the extent that any of the properties in which we have an interest are cross-collateralized, any default by the property owner subsidiary under the mortgage note relating to the one property will result in a default under the financing arrangements relating to any other property that also provides security for that mortgage note or is cross-collateralized or cross-defaulted with such mortgage note. Such a default may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.
Competition for the acquisition of agricultural real estate may impede our ability to make acquisitions, increase the cost of these acquisitions or decrease or prevent increases in the occupancy and rental rates of our current properties.
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We will compete for the acquisition of properties with many other entities engaged in agricultural and real estate investment activities, including corporate agriculture companies, financial institutions, institutional pension funds, real estate companies, private equity funds and private real estate investors. These competitors may prevent us from acquiring desirable properties or may cause an increase in the price we must pay for real estate. Our competitors may have greater resources than we do and may be willing to pay more for certain assets or may have a more compatible operating philosophy with our acquisition targets. In particular, larger institutions may enjoy significant competitive advantages that result from, among other things, a lower cost of capital and enhanced operating efficiencies. Our competitors may also adopt transaction structures similar to, or more favorable than ours, offering rental rates below current market rates or below rates we currently charge our tenants, which would decrease our competitive advantage in offering flexible transaction terms. In addition, the number of entities and the amount of funds competing for suitable investment properties may increase, resulting in increased demand and increased prices paid for these properties. If we pay higher prices for properties, our profitability may decrease, and you may experience a lower return on your investment. Increased competition for properties may also preclude us from acquiring those properties that would generate attractive returns to us, as well as prevent us from achieving diversification by geography and crop type, having a material adverse effect on our results of operations and available cash for distributions to stockholders.
We operate as a holding company dependent upon the assets and operations of our subsidiaries, and because of our structure, we may not be able to generate the funds necessary to make distributions on our common stock.
We generally operate as a holding company that conducts its businesses primarily through our Operating Partnership, which in turn is a holding company conducting its business through its subsidiaries. These subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and are our only source of income. Accordingly, we are dependent on cash flows and payments of funds to us by our subsidiaries as distributions, loans, advances, leases or other payments from our subsidiaries to generate the funds necessary to make distributions on our common stock. Our subsidiaries’ ability to pay such distributions and/or make such loans, advances, leases or other payments may be restricted by, among other things, applicable laws and regulations, current and future debt agreements and management agreements into which our subsidiaries may enter, which may impair our ability to make cash payments on our common stock. In addition, such agreements may prohibit or limit the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer any of their property or assets to us, any of our other subsidiaries or to third parties. Our future indebtedness or our subsidiaries’ future indebtedness may also include restrictions with similar effects.
In addition, because we are a holding company, stockholders’ claims will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations (whether or not for borrowed money) of our Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization, claims of our stockholders will be satisfied only after all of our and our operating partnership’s and its subsidiaries’ liabilities and obligations have been paid in full.
Some state laws prohibit or restrict the ownership of agricultural land by business entities, which could impede the growth of our portfolio and our ability to diversify geographically.
Certain states, including Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Missouri, and Kansas have laws that prohibit or restrict to varying degrees the ownership of agricultural land by corporations or business entities like us. Additional states may, in the future, pass similar or more restrictive laws, and we may not be legally permitted, or it may become overly burdensome or expensive, to acquire properties in these states, which could impede the growth of our portfolio and our ability to diversify geographically in states that might otherwise have attractive investment opportunities.
Failure to succeed in new markets may have adverse consequences.
As we expand and diversify our geographic portfolio, we may acquire properties located in new markets, exposing us to risks associated with a lack of market knowledge or understanding of the local market. This includes the availability and identity of quality tenant farmers, forging new business relationships in the area and unfamiliarity with local government requirements and procedures. Furthermore, the evaluation and negotiation of a potential expansion into new markets would divert management time and other resources. As a result, we may have difficulties executing our business strategy in these new markets, which could have a negative impact on our results of operations and ability to make distributions to stockholders.
We may not ultimately be able to sell our agricultural real estate to developers in connection with the conversion of such properties to urban or suburban uses, especially in light of the current uncertain market for real estate development.
Our business plan in part contemplates purchasing agricultural real property that we believe is located in the path of urban and suburban growth and ultimately will increase in value over the long term as a result. Pending the sale of such real property to developers for conversion to urban, suburban and other more intensive uses, such as residential or commercial development, we intend to lease the property for agricultural uses, particularly farming. Urban and suburban development is subject to a number of uncertainties, including land zoning and environmental issues, infrastructure development and demand. These uncertainties are particularly pronounced in light of the current economic environment, in which the pace of future development is unclear. Although the current development market contains uncertainties, these uncertainties may be more acute over time, since we do
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not intend to acquire properties that are expected to be converted to urban or suburban uses in the near term. As a result, there can be no guarantee that increased development will actually occur and that we will be able to sell any of the properties that we own or acquire in the future for such conversion. Our inability to sell these properties in the future at an appreciated value for conversion to urban or suburban uses could result in a reduced return on your investment.
Liability for uninsured or underinsured losses could adversely affect our financial condition.
Losses from disaster-type occurrences, such as wars, earthquakes and weather-related disasters, may be either uninsurable or not insurable on economically viable terms. Should an uninsured loss occur, we could lose our capital investment or anticipated profits and cash flows from one or more properties. If any such loss is insured, we may be required to pay a significant deductible on any claim for recovery of such a loss prior to our insurer being obligated to issue reimbursement. Further, the amount of losses may exceed our coverage, which could have an adverse effect on our cash flow.
Potential liability for environmental matters could adversely affect our financial condition.
We intend to purchase agricultural properties and will be subject to the risk of liabilities under federal, state and local environmental laws. Some of these laws could subject us to:
responsibility and liability for the cost of removal or remediation of hazardous substances released on our properties, which may include herbicides and pesticides, generally without regard to our knowledge of or responsibility for the presence of the contaminants;
liability for the costs of removal or remediation of hazardous substances at disposal facilities for persons who arrange for the disposal or treatment of these substances; and
potential liability for claims by third parties for damages resulting from environmental contaminants.
We will generally include provisions in our leases making tenants responsible for all environmental liabilities and for compliance with environmental regulations, and we will seek to require tenants to reimburse us for damages or costs for which we have been found liable. However, these provisions will not eliminate our statutory liability or preclude third-party claims against us. Even if we were to have a legal claim against a tenant to enable us to recover any amounts we are required to pay, there are no assurances that we would be able to collect any money from the tenant. Our costs of investigation, remediation or removal of hazardous substances may be substantial. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances on one of our properties, or the failure to properly remediate a contaminated property, could adversely affect our ability to sell or lease the property or to borrow using the property as collateral. Additionally, we could become subject to new, stricter environmental regulations, which could diminish the utility of our properties and have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.
If our tenants fail to comply with applicable labor regulations, it could have an adverse effect on our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
State, county, and federal governments have also implemented a number of regulations governing labor practices used in connection with farming operations. For example, these regulations seek to provide for minimum wages and minimum and maximum work hours, as well as to restrict the hiring of illegal immigrants. If one of our tenants is accused of violating, or found to have violated such regulations, it could have a material adverse effect on the tenant’s operating results, which could adversely affect its ability to make its rental payments to us and, in turn, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
The presence of endangered or threatened species on or near our acquired farmland could restrict the activities of our agricultural tenants, which could in turn have a material adverse impact on the value of our assets and our results of operations.
Federal, state, and local laws and regulations intended to protect threatened or endangered species could restrict certain activities on our farmland. The size of any area subject to restriction would vary depending on the protected species at issue, the time of year and other factors, and there can be no assurance that such federal, state, and local laws will not become more restrictive over time. If portions of our farmland are deemed to be part of or bordering habitats for such endangered or threatened species that could be disturbed by the agricultural activities of our tenants, it could impair the ability of the land to be used for farming, which in turn could have a material adverse impact on the value of our assets and our results of operations.
We may be required to permit the owners of the mineral rights to our properties to enter and occupy parts of the properties for the purposes of drilling and operating oil or gas wells, which could adversely impact the rental value of our properties.
Although we will own the surface rights to the properties that we acquire, other persons may own the rights to any minerals, such as oil and natural gas, that may be located under the surfaces of these properties. Under agreements with any such mineral rights owners, we expect that we would be required to permit third parties to enter our properties for the purpose of drilling and operating oil or gas wells on the premises. We will also be required to set aside a reasonable portion of the surface area of our properties to accommodate these oil and gas operations. The devotion of a portion of our properties to these oil and gas
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operations would reduce the amount of the surface available for farming or farm-related uses, which could adversely impact the rents that we receive from leasing these properties.
Interest rate fluctuations may adversely affect our results of operations.
We may experience interest rate volatility in connection with mortgage loans on our properties or other variable-rate debt that we may obtain from time to time, such as our existing lines of credit, which are variable. Although we seek to mitigate this risk by structuring such provisions to contain a maximum interest rate or escalation rate, as applicable, and obtain interest rate swaps on certain borrowings to limit our exposure to interest rate risk, these features do not eliminate this risk. We are also exposed to the effects of interest rate changes as a result of holding cash and cash equivalents in short-term, interest-bearing investments. Additionally, increases in interest rates, or reduced access to credit markets due, among other things, to more stringent lending requirements or a high level of leverage, may make it difficult for us to refinance our mortgage debt as it matures or limit the availability of mortgage debt, thereby limiting our acquisition and/or refinancing activities. Even in the event that we are able to secure mortgage debt on, or otherwise finance our mortgage debt, due to increased costs associated with securing financing and other factors beyond our control, we may be unable to refinance the entire mortgage debt as it matures or be subject to unfavorable terms (such as higher loan fees, interest rates, and periodic payments) if we do refinance the mortgage debt. A significant change in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
While the U.S. Federal Reserve increased the federal funds rate 11 times from March 2022 through July 2023, they have held the federal funds rate flat since then. Future decisions on the federal funds rate will depend on a variety of key economic indicators, including inflation and the unemployment rate, among others. Any future increases may cause interest rates and borrowing costs to rise even further, which may negatively impact our ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms. Any prolonged adverse economic conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We cannot predict the impact future actions by regulators or government bodies, including the U.S. Federal Reserve, will have on real estate debt markets, the market value of our capital stock or on our business, and any such actions may negatively impact us.
Regulators and U.S. government bodies have a major impact on our business. The U.S. Federal Reserve is a major participant in, and its actions significantly impact, the real estate debt markets. The Federal Reserve has kept the federal funds rate flat since July 2023, and there can be no assurance if or when any reductions will be announced. Partly due to increases in the federal funds rate prior to July 2023 and the uncertainty over future actions of the Federal Reserve, borrowing costs remain high. Should the Federal Reserve continue to keep the federal funds rate flat for a prolonged period of time, or should it announce further increases, this may cause interest rates and borrowing costs to remain high or rise even further, which may negatively impact our ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms and the market value of our capital stock. This may result in future acquisitions by us generating lower overall economic returns and increasing the costs associated with refinancing current debt, which could potentially reduce future cash flow available for distributions. It is difficult to predict future legislation, regulation, and executive actions, and we cannot predict or control the impact future actions by regulators or government bodies, such as the Federal Reserve, will have on our business.
Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents may adversely affect our business by causing a disruption to our operations or the operations of businesses in which we invest, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and operating results.
In the normal course of business, we and our service providers collect and retain certain personal information provided by our tenants, employees of our Administrator and Adviser, and vendors. We also rely extensively on computer systems to process transactions and manage our business. Despite careful security and controls design, implementation, updating, and independent third-party verification, our information technology systems, and those of our third-party providers, could become subject to cybersecurity incidents. A cybersecurity incident is defined by the SEC as an unauthorized occurrence, or a series of related unauthorized occurrences, on or conducted through our information systems that jeopardize the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of our information resources or any information residing therein. A cybersecurity incident may be an intentional attack or an unintentional event and could involve gaining unauthorized access to our information systems or those of our third-party providers for purposes of misappropriating assets, stealing confidential information, corrupting data, or causing operational disruption. The result of a cybersecurity incident may include disrupted operations, misstated or unreliable financial data, liability for stolen assets or information, increased cybersecurity protection and insurance costs, litigation, and damage to our business relationships. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our information systems, both internal and those provided to us by third-party service providers. In addition, cybersecurity threats such as those noted above have increased in recent years in part due to increasingly numerous and sophisticated malicious cyber actors. We have implemented processes, procedures, and internal controls to help prevent, detect, and mitigate cybersecurity threats and cyber intrusions, but these measures, as well as our increased awareness of the nature and extent of a threat of a cyber-incident,
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do not guarantee that a cyber-incident will not occur, will be timely detected, or that our financial results, operations, or confidential information will not be negatively impacted by such an incident. The development and maintenance of these measures are also costly and require ongoing monitoring, testing, and updating as technologies and processes change and efforts to overcome cybersecurity measures become increasingly sophisticated.
Our business may be adversely affected by public health emergencies.
Any public health emergency, including any outbreak of COVID-19, SARS, H1N1/09 flu, avian flu, other coronavirus, Ebola or other existing or new epidemic diseases, or the threat thereof, could have a significant adverse impact on us and could adversely affect our ability to fulfill our investment objectives.
The extent of the impact of any public health emergency on our operational and financial performance will depend on many factors, including the duration and scope of such public health emergency, the extent of any related travel advisories and restrictions implemented, the impact of such public health emergencies on overall supply and demand, goods and services, investor liquidity, consumer confidence and levels of economic activity, and the extent of its disruption to important global, regional, and local supply chains and economic markets, all of which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted. The effects of a public health emergency may disrupt the operations of our tenant-farmers and pose the risk that they may be prevented from conducting normal business activities for an unknown period of time, including shutdowns that may be requested or mandated by governmental authorities. We cannot accurately estimate the impact that a public health threat could have on our farmland portfolio, but it could disrupt the businesses of our tenant-farmers and impact their ability to make lease payments to us, including under modified lease terms allowing for deferred rent, thereby decreasing the overall value of our leasehold interests in the properties, which could adversely impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations.
Further, our operations may be significantly impacted, or even temporarily or permanently halted, as a result of government shelter-in-place measures, vaccine mandates, voluntary and precautionary restrictions on travel or meetings, paused or reversed reopening orders, and other factors related to a public health emergency, including its potential adverse impact on the health of our Adviser’s and Administrator’s personnel. As a result, there is a risk that this continuing crisis could adversely impact our ability to source, manage, and divest investments and the Company’s ability to achieve its investment objectives, all of which could result in significant losses to us and could impact our ability to make interest and distribution payments to lenders and stockholders, respectively, including their respective amounts.
Risks Associated With Our Use of an Adviser to Manage Our Business
We are dependent upon our key management personnel for our future success, particularly David Gladstone, Terry Lee Brubaker, Bill Reiman, Lewis Parrish, and Jay Beckhorn.
We have no employees and are therefore dependent on the senior management and other key management members who are employed by our Adviser or Administrator, as applicable, to carry out our business and investment strategies. Our future success depends to a significant extent on the continued service and coordination of our senior management team, particularly David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer and president; Terry Lee Brubaker, our chief operating officer; Bill Reiman, our Executive Vice President; and Lewis Parrish, our chief financial officer and assistant treasurer. Mr. Gladstone also serves as the chief executive officer of our Adviser and our Administrator, and Mr. Brubaker is also an executive officer of our Adviser and our Administrator. The departure of any of our executive officers or key personnel of our Adviser or Administrator, as applicable, could have a material adverse effect on our ability to implement our business strategy and to achieve our investment objectives.
Our success will continue to depend on the performance of our Adviser and if our Adviser makes inadvisable investment or management decisions, our operations could be materially adversely impacted.
Our ability to achieve our investment objectives and to pay distributions to our stockholders is substantially dependent upon the performance of our Adviser in evaluating potential investments, selecting and negotiating property purchases and dispositions on our behalf, selecting tenants and borrowers, setting lease terms and determining financing arrangements. You will have no opportunity to evaluate the terms of transactions or other economic or financial data concerning our investments. You must rely entirely on the analytical and management abilities of our Adviser and the oversight of our Board of Directors. If our Adviser or our Board of Directors makes inadvisable investment or management decisions, our operations could be materially adversely impacted.
We may have conflicts of interest with our Adviser and other affiliates, which could result in investment decisions that are not in the best interests of our stockholders.
Our Adviser manages our real estate portfolio and locates, evaluates, recommends and negotiates the acquisition of our real estate investments and mortgage loans. At the same time, our Advisory Agreement permits our Adviser to conduct other
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commercial activities and to provide management and advisory services to other entities, including, but not limited to, Gladstone Commercial, Gladstone Capital, and Gladstone Investment, each of which is affiliated with us. Each of our executive officers, other than Mr. Parrish, is also an executive officer of Gladstone Commercial, which actively makes real estate investments, and Gladstone Capital and Gladstone Investment, which actively make loans to and invest in small- and medium-sized companies. As a result, we may, from time to time, have conflicts of interest with our Adviser in its management of our business and that of Gladstone Commercial, Gladstone Investment, or Gladstone Capital, which may arise primarily from the involvement of our Adviser, Gladstone Commercial, Gladstone Capital, Gladstone Investment, and their affiliates in other activities that may conflict with our business. Examples of these potential conflicts include:
our Adviser may realize substantial compensation on account of its activities on our behalf and may be motivated to approve acquisitions solely on the basis of increasing its compensation from us;
our agreements with our Adviser are not arm’s-length agreements, which could result in terms in those agreements that are less favorable than we could obtain from independent third parties;
we may experience competition with our affiliates for potential financing transactions; and
our Adviser and other affiliates, such as Gladstone Commercial, Gladstone Capital, and Gladstone Investment could compete for the time and services of our officers and directors and reduce the amount of time they are able to devote to management of our business.
These and other conflicts of interest between us and our Adviser could have a material adverse effect on the operation of our business and the selection or management of our real estate investments.
Our financial condition and results of operations will depend on our Adviser’s ability to effectively manage our future growth.
Our ability to achieve our investment objectives will depend on our ability to sustain continued growth, which will, in turn, depend on our Adviser’s ability to find, select and negotiate property purchases and net leases that meet our investment criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis is largely a function of our Adviser’s marketing capabilities, management of the investment process, ability to provide competent, attentive and efficient services and our access to financing sources on acceptable terms. As we grow, our Adviser may be required to hire, train, supervise and manage new employees. Our Adviser’s failure to effectively manage our future growth could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our Adviser is not obligated to provide a waiver of the incentive fee, which could negatively impact our earnings and our ability to maintain our current level of, or increase, distributions to our stockholders.
The Advisory Agreement contemplates a quarterly incentive fee based on our funds from operation (“FFO”). Our Adviser has the ability to issue a full or partial waiver of the incentive fee for current and future periods; however, our Adviser is not required to issue any waiver. Any waiver issued by our Adviser is an unconditional and irrevocable waiver. If our Adviser does not issue this waiver in future quarters, it could negatively impact our earnings and may compromise our ability to maintain our current level of, or increase, distributions to our stockholders.
We may be obligated to pay our Adviser quarterly incentive compensation even if we incur a net loss during a particular quarter.
The Advisory Agreement entitles our Adviser to incentive compensation based on our FFO, which rewards our Adviser if our quarterly pre-incentive fee FFO exceeds 1.75% (7.0% annualized) of our total adjusted common equity. Our pre-incentive fee FFO for a particular quarter for incentive compensation purposes excludes the effect of any unrealized gains, losses, or other items during that quarter that do not affect realized net income, even if these adjustments result in a net loss on our statement of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay our Adviser incentive compensation for a fiscal quarter even if we incur a net loss for that quarter as determined in accordance with U.S. generally-accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”).
Risks Associated With Ownership of Our Common Stock and OP Units and Our Tax Status
Certain provisions contained in our charter and bylaws and under Maryland law may prohibit or restrict attempts by our stockholders to change our management and hinder efforts to effect a change of control of us, and the market price of our common stock may be lower as a result.
There are provisions in our charter and bylaws that may make it difficult for a third party to acquire, or attempt to acquire, control of our company, even if a change in control was considered favorable by you and other stockholders. For example:
Our articles of incorporation prohibit ownership of more than 3.3% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock by one person, except for certain qualified institutional investors, which are limited to holding 9.8% of our common stock. As of December 31, 2023, David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer, and president, and pursuant to an exception approved by our Board of Directors and in compliance with our charter, owned, directly or indirectly,
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including through certain foundations and trusts, approximately 7.0% of our common stock, and the Gladstone Future Trust, for the benefit of Mr. Gladstone’s children, owned approximately 1.9% of our common stock. The ownership restriction may discourage a change of control and may deter individuals or entities from making tender offers for our capital stock, which offers might otherwise be financially attractive to our stockholders or which might cause a change in our management.
Our Board of Directors is divided into three classes, with the term of the directors in each class expiring every third year. At each annual meeting of stockholders, the successors to the class of directors whose term expires at such meeting will be elected to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election. After election, a director may only be removed by our stockholders for cause. Election of directors for staggered terms with limited rights to remove directors makes it more difficult for a hostile bidder to acquire control of us. The existence of this provision may negatively impact the price of our securities and may discourage third-party bids to acquire our securities. This provision may reduce any premiums paid to stockholders in a change in control transaction.
The Control Share Acquisition Act provides that “control shares” of a Maryland corporation acquired in a “control share acquisition” have no voting rights except to the extent approved by the corporation’s disinterested stockholders by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares of stock owned by interested stockholders, that is, by the acquirer, by officers or by directors who are employees of the corporation, are excluded from shares entitled to vote on the matter. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock that would entitle the acquirer to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of three increasing ranges of voting power. The Control Share Acquisition does not apply (a) to shares acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction or (b) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the Control Share Acquisition Act any and all acquisitions of our common stock by David Gladstone or any of his affiliates. This statute could have the effect of discouraging offers from third parties to acquire us and increasing the difficulty of successfully completing this type of offer by anyone other than Mr. Gladstone or any of his affiliates.
Certain provisions of Maryland law applicable to us prohibit business combinations with:
any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our common stock, referred to as an “interested stockholder;”
an affiliate of ours who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was an interested stockholder; or
an affiliate of an interested stockholder.
These prohibitions last for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any business combination with the interested stockholder must be recommended by our Board and approved by the affirmative vote of at least 80% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our outstanding shares of common stock and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our common stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder. These requirements could have the effect of inhibiting a change in control even if a change in control were in our stockholders’ interest. These provisions of Maryland law do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by our Board of Directors prior to the time that someone becomes an interested stockholder.
Our rights and the rights of our stockholders to take action against our directors and officers are limited.
Maryland law provides that a director or officer has no liability in that capacity if he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be advisable and in our best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. In addition, our charter (i) eliminates our directors’ and officers’ liability to us and our stockholders for money damages except for liability resulting from actual receipt of an improper benefit in money, property or services or active and deliberate dishonesty established by a final judgment and that is material to the cause of action and (ii) requires us to indemnify directors and officers for liability resulting from actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. As a result, our stockholders and we may have more limited rights against our directors and officers than might otherwise exist under common law. In addition, we may be obligated to fund the defense costs incurred by our directors and officers.
We may enter into tax protection agreements in the future in connection with the issuance of OP Units to acquire additional properties, which could limit our ability to sell or otherwise dispose of certain properties.
Our Operating Partnership may enter into tax protection agreements in connection with issuing OP Units to acquire additional properties which could provide that if we dispose of any interest in the protected acquired property prior to a certain time, we will indemnify the other party for its tax liabilities attributable to the built-in gain that exists with respect to such property. Therefore, although it may be in our stockholders’ best interests that we sell one of these properties, it may be economically
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prohibitive for us to do so if we are a party to such a tax protection agreement. While we do not currently have any of these tax protection agreements in place currently, we may enter into such agreements in the future.
Our redemption of OP Units could result in the issuance of a large number of new shares of our common stock and/or force us to expend significant cash, which may limit our funds necessary to make distributions on our common stock.
Following any contractual lock-up provisions, including the one-year mandatory holding period, a non-controlling limited partner of our Operating Partnership may require us to redeem the OP Units it holds. At our election, we may satisfy the redemption through either a cash redemption, the issuance of shares of our common stock on a one-for-one basis, or a combination of the two. However, the limited partners’ redemption right may not be exercised if and to the extent that the delivery of the shares upon such exercise would result in any person violating the ownership and transfer restrictions set forth in our charter.  If a large number of OP Units were redeemed, it could result in the issuance of a large number of new shares of our common stock, which could dilute our existing stockholders’ ownership.  Alternatively, if we were to redeem a large number of OP Units for cash, we may be required to expend significant amounts to pay the redemption price, which may limit our funds necessary to make distributions on our common stock. Further, if we do not have sufficient cash on hand at the time the OP Units are tendered for redemption, we may be forced to sell additional shares of our common stock in order to raise cash, which could cause dilution to our existing stockholders and adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Our charter grants our Board of Directors the right to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of capital stock, increase or decrease the authorized number of shares and establish the preference and rights of any preferred stock without stockholder approval. 
Under our charter, we currently have authority to issue shares of both common stock and preferred stock. Our Board of Directors has the authority, without a stockholders’ vote, to classify or reclassify any unissued shares of stock, including common stock, into preferred stock (or vice versa), to increase or decrease the authorized number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and to establish the preferences and rights of any preferred stock or other class or series of shares to be issued. Because our Board of Directors has the power to establish the preferences and rights of additional classes or series of stock without a stockholders’ vote, our Board of Directors may give the holders of any class or series of stock preferences, powers and rights, including voting rights, senior to the rights of holders of existing stock.
Holders of our currently-designated preferred securities and future holders of any securities ranking senior to our common stock have dividend and/or liquidation rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock. Additional issuances of securities senior to our common stock may negatively impact the value of our common stock and further restrict the ability of holders of our common stock to receive dividends and/or liquidation rights.
In addition to our outstanding borrowings and common stock, our capital structure also includes our currently-designated preferred securities. In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by completing additional offerings of these preferred securities or other equity securities or by issuing debt securities. In the event of a liquidation, lenders with respect to any outstanding borrowings, holders of any debt securities, and holders of any preferred stock issuances (including our currently-designated preferred securities and any other preferred stock with parity ranking we may issue in the future) would receive a distribution of our available assets in full prior to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Holders of our common stock are not entitled to preemptive rights or other protection against dilutions. As additional acquisition opportunities arise, we may issue additional shares of common stock or preferred stock, or we may issue OP Units, which are redeemable for cash or, at our option, our common stock on a one-to-one basis, to raise the capital necessary to finance these acquisitions, thus potentially further diluting stockholders’ equity. As such, our common stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the per-share trading price of our common stock and diluting their interest in us. Further, holders of our currently-designated preferred securities rank senior in priority of dividend payments, which may restrict our ability to declare and pay dividends to our common stockholders at the current rate, or at all.
We may not have sufficient earnings and profits to pay distributions on our currently-designated preferred securities or common stock to be treated as dividends.
The distributions payable by us on our currently-designated preferred securities or common stock may exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, as calculated for U.S. federal income tax purposes, at the time of payment. If that were to occur, it would result in the amount of distributions that exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits being treated first as a return of capital to the extent of the holder’s adjusted tax basis in the respective security and then, to the extent of any excess over such adjusted tax basis, as capital gain.
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We may not be able to maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, which would subject us to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, thereby reducing the amount of funds available for paying distributions to stockholders.
Our ability to maintain our qualification as a REIT depends on our ability to satisfy requirements set forth in the Code, concerning, among other things, the ownership of our outstanding common stock, the nature of our assets, the sources of our income and the amount of our distributions to our stockholders. The REIT qualification requirements are extremely complex, and interpretations of the federal income tax laws governing qualification as a REIT are limited. Accordingly, we cannot be certain that we will be successful in continuing to operate so as to qualify as a REIT. At any time, new laws, interpretations or court decisions may change the federal tax laws relating to, or the federal income tax consequences of, qualification as a REIT. It is possible that future economic, market, legal, tax or other considerations may cause our Board of Directors to revoke our REIT election, which it may do without stockholder approval.
If we lose our REIT status or if it was revoked, we would face serious tax consequences that would substantially reduce the funds available for distribution to our stockholders because:
we would not be allowed a deduction for distributions to stockholders in computing our taxable income;
we would be subject to federal income tax at regular corporate rates and might need to borrow money or sell assets to pay any such tax;
we also could be subject to increased state and local taxes and, for taxable years ended on or before December 31, 2017, the federal alternative minimum tax; and
unless we are entitled to relief under statutory provisions, we would be disqualified from taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we ceased to qualify.
If we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, domestic stockholders will be subject to tax as “qualified dividends” to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. The maximum U.S. federal income tax rate on such “qualified dividends” is 20%. If we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we would not be required to make distributions to stockholders, and any distributions to stockholders that are U.S. corporations might be eligible for the dividends received deduction.
As a result of all these factors, our failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT could impair our ability to expand our business and raise capital and could adversely affect the value of our capital stock.
Complying with REIT requirements may cause us to forgo or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, we must continually satisfy various tests regarding the sources of our income, the nature and diversification of our assets, the amounts we distribute to our stockholders and the ownership of our stock. In order to meet these tests, we may be required to forgo investments we might otherwise make.
In particular, we must ensure that at the end of each calendar quarter at least 75% of the value of our assets consists of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified REIT real estate assets. The remainder of our investment in securities other than government securities, securities of a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”), and qualified real estate assets generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer. In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our assets other than government securities, securities of TRSs, and qualified real estate assets can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% (or 25% for taxable years ended on or before December 31, 2017) of the value of our total assets can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs.
If we fail to comply with these requirements, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences. As a result, we may be required to dispose of otherwise attractive investments to satisfy REIT requirements. These actions could have the effect of reducing our income and amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.
Failure to make required distributions, both prior to and following our REIT election, would jeopardize our REIT status, which could require us to pay taxes and negatively impact our cash available for future distribution.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, each year we must distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our taxable income, other than any net capital gains. To the extent that we satisfy the distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our taxable income, we will be subject to federal corporate income tax on our undistributed income. In addition, we will incur a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which our distributions in any year are less than the sum of:
85% of our ordinary income for that year;
95% of our capital gain net income for that year; and
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100% of our undistributed taxable income from prior years.
We intend to pay out our income to our stockholders in a manner intended to satisfy the distribution requirement applicable to REITs and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax. Differences in timing between the recognition of income and the related cash receipts or the effect of required debt amortization payments could require us to borrow money or sell assets to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the distribution requirement and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year.
Dividends payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates available for some dividends.
The maximum federal income tax rate applicable to individuals with respect to income from “qualified dividends” is 20%. Dividends payable by REITs, however, generally are not eligible for the reduced rates. More favorable rates applicable to regular corporate qualified dividends may cause investors who are taxed at individual rates to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay dividends.
If we fail to meet stock ownership diversification requirements, we would fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, which could require us to pay taxes and negatively impact our cash available for future distribution.
To maintain our qualification as a REIT, no more than 50% of the value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals during the last half of a taxable year, beginning with the second year after our election to be treated as a REIT. To facilitate compliance with this requirement, our charter prohibits any individual from owning more than 3.3% in value of our outstanding stock. Pursuant to an exception from this limit contained in our charter, as of December 31, 2023, David Gladstone owned, directly or indirectly, including through certain trusts, aggregate beneficial ownership of approximately 8.3% of our outstanding common stock. In addition, the David and Lorna Gladstone Foundation, a private charitable foundation, owned approximately 0.6% of our outstanding common stock. Our Board of Directors may also reduce the 3.3% ownership limitation if it determines that doing so is necessary for us to maintain our qualification for REIT treatment. However, such a reduction would not be effective for any stockholder who beneficially owns more than the reduced ownership limit. We believe that we have satisfied the ownership diversification requirements, including with respect to our taxable year ended December 31, 2023. However, if, at any point in time, we are unable to comply with the ownership diversification requirements, we could fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, which could require us to pay taxes and negatively impact our cash available for future distribution.
We will not seek to obtain a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the “IRS”) that we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.
We have not requested, and do not expect to request, a ruling from the IRS that we qualify as a REIT. An IRS determination that we do not qualify as a REIT would deprive our stockholders of the tax benefits of our REIT status only if the IRS determination is upheld in court or otherwise becomes final. To the extent that we challenge an IRS determination that we do not qualify as a REIT, we may incur legal expenses that would reduce our funds available for distribution to stockholders.
The IRS may treat sale-leaseback transactions as loans, which could jeopardize our REIT status.
The IRS may take the position that transactions in which we acquire a property and lease it back to the seller do not qualify as leases for federal income tax purposes but are, instead, financing arrangements or loans. If a sale-leaseback transaction were so re-characterized, we might fail to satisfy the asset or income tests required for REIT qualification and consequently could lose our REIT status. Alternatively, the amount of our REIT taxable income could be recalculated, which could cause us to fail the distribution test for REIT qualification.
Investments in our common stock may not be suitable for pension or profit-sharing trusts, Keogh Plans or individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”).
If you are investing the assets of a pension, profit sharing, 401(k), Keogh or other retirement plan, IRA or benefit plan in us, you should consider:
whether your investment is consistent with the applicable provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (“ERISA”), or the Code;
whether your investment will produce unrelated business taxable income to the benefit plan; and
your need to value the assets of the benefit plan annually.
We do not believe that under current ERISA law and regulations that our assets would be treated as “plan assets” for purposes of ERISA. However, if our assets were considered to be plan assets, our assets would be subject to ERISA and/or Section 4975 of the Code, and some of the transactions we have entered into with our Adviser and its affiliates could be considered “prohibited transactions” which could cause us, our Adviser and its affiliates to be subject to liabilities and excise taxes. In addition, our officers and directors, our Adviser and its affiliates could be deemed to be fiduciaries under ERISA and subject to
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other conditions, restrictions and prohibitions under Part 4 of Title I of ERISA. Even if our assets are not considered to be plan assets, a prohibited transaction could occur if we or any of our affiliates is a fiduciary within the meaning of ERISA with respect to a purchase by a benefit plan.
If our Operating Partnership fails to maintain its status as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, its income may be subject to taxation.
We intend to maintain the status of the Operating Partnership as a partnership for federal income tax purposes. However, if the IRS were to successfully challenge the status of the Operating Partnership as a partnership, it would be taxable as a corporation. In such event, this would reduce the amount of distributions that the Operating Partnership could make to us. This would also result in our losing REIT status and becoming subject to a corporate level tax on our own income. This would substantially reduce our cash available to pay distributions and the return on your investment. In addition, if any of the entities through which the Operating Partnership owns its properties, in whole or in part, loses its characterization as a disregarded entity or a partnership for federal income tax purposes, it would be subject to taxation as a corporation, thereby reducing distributions to the Operating Partnership. Such a re-characterization of an underlying property owner could also threaten our ability to maintain REIT status.
Our ownership of, and relationship with, TRSs will be limited, and our failure to comply with the limits would jeopardize our REIT status and could result in the application of a 100% excise tax.
We have elected to treat Gladstone Land Advisers, Inc. (“Land Advisers”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of our Operating Partnership, as a TRS. We may also form other TRSs as part of our overall business strategy. A TRS may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. Both the subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation of which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. A TRS will pay federal, state, and local income tax at regular corporate rates on any income that it earns. In addition, the TRS rules limit the deductibility of interest paid or accrued by a TRS to its parent REIT to ensure that the TRS is subject to an appropriate level of corporate taxation. The rules also impose a 100% excise tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm’s-length basis.
Our TRSs will pay federal, state, and local income tax on their taxable income, and their after-tax net income will be available for distribution to us but is not required to be distributed to us. We anticipate that the aggregate value of any TRS stock and securities owned by us will be less than 20% of the value of our total assets, including the TRS stock and securities. We will evaluate all of our transactions with TRSs to ensure that they are entered into on arm’s-length terms to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax. There can be no assurance, however, that we will be able to comply with the 20% limitation or to avoid application of the 100% excise tax.
Legislative or regulatory income tax changes related to REITs could materially and adversely affect us.
The U.S. federal income tax laws and regulations governing REITs and their stockholders, as well as the administrative interpretations of those laws and regulations, are constantly under review and may be changed at any time, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted. Changes to the U.S. federal income tax laws and interpretations of U.S. federal tax laws could adversely affect an investment in our common stock.
Risks Relating to the Market for our Common Stock, Series B Preferred Stock, Series C Preferred Stock, Series D Term Preferred Stock, and Series E Preferred Stock
Future issuances and sales of shares of our common stock, our currently-designated preferred securities, future series of preferred securities, or the perception that such issuances will occur, may have adverse effects on the trading prices of our shares.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future issuances and sales of our common stock, our currently-designated preferred securities, possible future series of preferred securities, or the availability of shares for future sales on the market price of our publicly-traded common stock and preferred securities. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares of our common stock issuable upon the conversion of OP Units that we may issue from time to time) or our currently-designated preferred securities, or the perception that these sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our publicly-traded common stock and preferred securities.
An increase in market interest rates may have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
One of the factors that investors may consider in deciding whether to buy or sell our common stock is our distribution yield, which is our distribution rate as a percentage of our share price, relative to market interest rates. If market interest rates
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increase, prospective investors may desire a higher distribution yield on our common stock or may seek securities paying higher dividends or interest. The market price of our common stock likely will be based primarily on the earnings that we derive from rental income with respect to our properties and our related distributions to stockholders, and not from the underlying appraised value of the properties themselves. As a result, interest rate fluctuations and capital market conditions are likely to affect the market price of our common stock, and such effects could be significant. For instance, if interest rates rise without an increase in our distribution rate, the market price of our common stock could decrease because potential investors may require a higher distribution yield on our common stock as market rates on interest-bearing securities, such as bonds, rise.
Shares of our currently-designated preferred securities are subordinated to existing and future debt, and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional preferred stock or by other transactions.
Payment of accrued dividends on our currently-designated preferred securities will be subordinated to all of our existing and future debt and will be structurally subordinate to the obligations of our subsidiaries. In addition, we may issue additional shares of another class or series of preferred stock ranking on parity with our currently-designated preferred securities with respect to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up. None of the provisions relating to our currently-designated preferred securities relate to or limit our indebtedness or afford the holders of these securities protection in the event of a highly-leveraged or other transaction, including a merger or the sale, lease, or conveyance of all or substantially all our assets or business, that might adversely affect the holders of our currently-designated preferred securities, other than in connection with a Change of Control Triggering Event (as defined by the Certificate of Designations). These factors may affect the trading price of our publicly-traded preferred securities.
We operate as a holding company dependent upon the assets and operations of our subsidiaries, and because of our structure, we may not be able to generate the funds necessary to make distributions on our currently-designated preferred securities.
We generally operate as a holding company that conducts its businesses primarily through the Operating Partnership, which, in turn, is a holding company conducting its business through its subsidiaries. These subsidiaries conduct all of our operations and are our only sources of income. Accordingly, we are dependent on cash flows and payments of funds to us by our subsidiaries as distributions, loans, advances, leases, or other payments from our subsidiaries to generate the funds necessary to make distributions or dividends on our securities. Our subsidiaries’ ability to pay such distributions and/or make such loans, advances, leases, or other payments may be restricted by, among other things, applicable laws and regulations, current and future debt agreements, and management agreements into which our subsidiaries may enter, which may impair our ability to make cash payments on our securities, including our currently-designated preferred securities. In addition, such agreements may prohibit or limit the ability of our subsidiaries to transfer any of their property or assets to us, any of our other subsidiaries, or to third parties. Our future indebtedness or our subsidiaries’ future indebtedness may also include restrictions with similar effects.
In addition, because we are a holding company, stockholders’ claims will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future liabilities and obligations (whether or not for borrowed money) of the Operating Partnership and its subsidiaries. Therefore, in the event of our bankruptcy, liquidation, or reorganization, claims of holders of our currently-designated preferred securities will be satisfied only after all of our and the Operating Partnership’s and its subsidiaries’ liabilities and obligations have been paid in full.
We intend to apply for quotation on Nasdaq for the Series E Preferred Stock in the future; however, there is currently no public market for this security. Even after listing, if achieved, a liquid secondary trading market may not develop, and the features of the Series E Preferred Stock may not provide holders of such shares with favorable liquidity options.
There is currently no public market for the Series E Preferred Stock. We intend to apply to list the Series E Preferred Stock on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange or to include these shares for quotation on a national securities market sometime within 12 months following the Series E Preferred Stock offering’s termination date. Until shares of the Series E Preferred Stock are listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange, if ever, holders of such shares may be unable to sell them at all or, if they are able to, only at substantial discounts from the liquidation preference. Even if the Series E Preferred Stock is listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange within one calendar year of the respective offerings’ termination date, as anticipated, there is a risk that such shares may be thinly traded, and the market for such shares may be relatively illiquid compared to the market for other types of securities, with the spread between the bid and asked prices considerably greater than the spreads of other securities with comparable terms and features. Additionally, our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our securities, including the Series E Preferred Stock, and these restrictions may inhibit your ability to sell the Series E Preferred Stock promptly, or at all. Also, since the Series E Preferred Stock has a stated maturity date, holders may be forced to hold the Series E Preferred Stock and receive stated dividends on the shares when, as, and if authorized by our Board of Directors and declared by us with no assurance as to ever receiving the liquidation preference.
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We will be required to terminate the Series E Offering (as defined elsewhere in this Form 10-K) if our common stock and our publicly-traded, currently-designated preferred securities are all no longer listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange.
The Series E Preferred Stock is a “covered security” and therefore is not subject to registration under the state securities, or “Blue Sky,” regulations in the various states in which it may be sold due to its seniority to our common stock, which is listed on Nasdaq. In the event that our common stock and our publicly-traded, currently-designated preferred securities are all no longer listed on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange, we will be required to register this offering in any state in which we offer shares of the Series E Preferred Stock. This would require the termination of this offering and could result in our raising an amount of gross proceeds that is substantially less than the amount of the gross proceeds we expect to raise if the maximum amount of the Series E Offering is sold. This would reduce our ability to make additional investments and limit the further diversification of our portfolio.
Our currently-designated preferred securities all bear a risk of redemption by us.
We may voluntarily redeem some or all of the Series B Preferred Stock at any time, and we may voluntarily redeem some or all of the Series C Preferred Stock on or after June 1, 2024. In addition, we may voluntarily redeem some or all of the Series E Preferred Stock on or after the first anniversary of the offering’s termination date. Before January 31, 2026, we may, at our option, redeem the Series D Term Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time. Any such redemptions may occur at a time that is unfavorable to stockholders. We may have an incentive to redeem any of our series of preferred stock voluntarily if market conditions allow us to issue common stock, other preferred stock, or debt securities at a dividend or interest rate that is lower than the dividend rate on such series of preferred stock.
ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 1C.CYBERSECURITY
Risk Management and Strategy
We have implemented ongoing processes that are designed to continually identify, assess, manage, and mitigate the dynamic and evolving material risks to us from cybersecurity threats. Our cybersecurity threat risks are identified, assessed, managed, and monitored by our Adviser’s and Administrator’s resource management and compliance departments, which work in conjunction with an independent third-party information technology service provider (“ISP”) engaged by our Adviser to manage our information technology strategy. The ISP regularly performs cyber assessments and assists in maintaining our cyber and information security programs. The ISP proposes recommendations to our Adviser’s resource management and compliance departments, which are then considered by other officers and employees of our Adviser and Administrator working on our behalf before improvements are implemented to our information technology strategy, cybersecurity, and incident response policies, processes, and procedures.
In addition, regular ongoing cybersecurity threat risk assessments are performed throughout the year and reported to our officers and Board of Directors by our Chief Compliance Officer (“CCO”) no less than quarterly. Cybersecurity risks are assessed in general as a part of the overall enterprise risk management for us, but also specifically between the ISP and our Adviser and Administrator in monitoring and determining not only the risks but also assessing corresponding processes and procedures to mitigate those risks appropriately. Third-party business applications are also incorporated into these risk assessments.
As an international service provider, our ISP constantly monitors information technology risk and cybersecurity threats globally. When risks are detected, we, through our Adviser and Administrator, consult with the ISP to assess if the risk is a cybersecurity threat to our information technology systems or data. If a risk to our information systems or data is identified, we then, through our Adviser and Administrator, work in conjunction with the ISP to implement recommended processes, improvements, or safeguards to our systems or processes to address the risks as needed. Relevant examples of such efforts include but are not limited to:
implementation of industry-leading Cloud solutions and business applications which possess integrated cybersecurity     safeguards,
anti-malware, antivirus, and threat detection software,
ransomware containment and isolation software,
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enhanced password requirements and multifactor authentication requirements,
endpoint encryption,
intrusion detection and response system conduct file integrity monitoring,
email archiving, firewalls, and quarantine capabilities,
mobile device management of business applications,
frequent systems backups with recovery capabilities, and
regular vulnerability scans and penetration testing.
Contractually, we require the ISP to provide us with annually a third-party report on its systems and on the suitability of the design and operating effectiveness of its controls relevant to information and cyber security. In addition to the ongoing dialogue and technology interaction between our Adviser and Administrator and our ISP, any significant findings in these reports are shared with us, including our Board of Directors and other officers, to enhance ongoing monitoring and assessment of our information technology and cybersecurity risk management.
While our ISP works to create a hardened information technology systems environment, our Adviser and Administrator also regularly trains employees working on our behalf on the evolving threats and educates them on cybersecurity risks. Whether it is communicating information about the latest cybersecurity threats, assessing employees’ awareness through mock fraud exercises, social engineering and phishing campaigns, or providing access to a library of educational material about past and newly-evolving cybersecurity attacks, our Adviser and Administrator work in concert with the ISP on our behalf to keep employees servicing us informed so as to provide an additional protection barrier through end-user knowledge.
Notwithstanding our risk management and strategy described above, we may not be successful in preventing or mitigating a cybersecurity incident that could have a material adverse effect on us. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors—Risks Relating to Our Business and Operations—Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents may adversely affect our business by causing a disruption to our operations or the operations of businesses in which we invest, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information, and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, and operating results.”
Governance
Our Board of Directors is actively engaged in overseeing our cybersecurity and information security program. Our Board of Directors receives regular reports during board meetings from our CCO on our and our Adviser’s and Administrator’s efforts concerning information security and addressing information technology and cybersecurity risks no less than quarterly. The reports are distributed to our Board of Directors, and our CCO engages in detailed discussions with the independent board members during the independent members’ session. The reports cover all potentially material cybersecurity threats facing us, as well as key risks and mitigation efforts undertaken by us and our Adviser and Administrator. As significant threats or events are identified by management or the ISP between regular reporting periods, our CCO will inform our Board of Directors immediately and keep it informed as to the developments of assessing the risks, mitigating efforts, and potential disclosure. Appropriate members of management and third-party providers will be involved as deemed necessary based on the potential impact.
Management personnel most involved with assessing and managing the cybersecurity risks and program with our ISP include our Head of Resources Management, who is also a member of our Board of Directors, and our CCO. Our Head of Resources Management has more than 30 years of overall experience and more than 20 years directly assessing and managing our cyber information technology and human resources systems and the associated security concerns. Our CCO has more than 30 years of overall experience as a CPA, with more than 15 years managing information technology systems and databases, and 15-plus years supporting our Adviser’s and Administrator’s resource management department. This includes identifying, assessing, mitigating, and monitoring cyber information security risks. These managers, as well as other management personnel, attend various professional continuing education programs that include cybersecurity matters. Certain members of our Board of Directors have, or previously held, positions with other companies, including other public companies, that involved managing risks associated with their cyber and information technology systems. Our Board of Directors regularly receives updates from third parties on various business risks, which include cybersecurity matters.
ITEM 2.PROPERTIES
All of our properties are wholly-owned on a fee-simple basis, except where noted. The following table provides certain summary information about the 169 farms we owned as of December 31, 2023 (dollars in thousands, except for footnotes):
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LocationNo. of FarmsTotal
Acres
Farm AcresAcre-feet of
Water Assets
Net Cost Basis(1)
Encumbrances(2)
California(3)(4)(5)
6334,84432,32146,400$850,610 $389,405 
Florida(6)
2622,46817,639221,185 95,012 
Washington62,5202,00459,763 20,133 
Arizona(7)
66,3205,33352,119 12,303 
Colorado1232,77325,57745,945 14,599 
Nebraska97,7827,05030,402 10,357 
Oregon(8)
689873629,534 11,308 
Michigan231,8921,24523,048 13,868 
Texas13,6672,2198,101 — 
Maryland69878638,013 4,344 
South Carolina35974473,542 2,147 
Georgia22301752,317 1,645 
North Carolina23102952,117 — 
New Jersey31161012,100 1,221 
Delaware11801401,296 697 
Totals169115,58496,14546,400$1,340,092 $577,039 
(1)Consists of the initial acquisition price (including the costs allocated to both tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed), plus subsequent improvements and other capitalized costs associated with the properties, and adjusted for accumulated depreciation and amortization. Specifically, includes Total real estate, net (excluding improvements paid for by the tenant) and Lease intangibles, net; plus long-term water assets, net above-market lease values, net lease incentives, and net investments in special-purpose LLCs included in Other assets, net; and less net below-market lease values and other deferred revenue included in Other liabilities, net; each as shown on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(2)Excludes approximately $2.9 million of debt issuance costs related to notes and bonds payable, included in Notes and bonds payable, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(3)Includes ownership in a special-purpose LLC that owns a pipeline conveying water to certain of our properties. As of December 31, 2023, this investment had a net carrying value of approximately $1.0 million and is included within Other assets, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet.
(4)Includes eight acres in which we own a leasehold interest via a ground lease with a private individual that expires in December 2040 and five acres in which we own a leasehold interest via a ground sublease with a California municipality that expires in December 2041. As of December 31, 2023, these two ground leases had a net cost basis of approximately $689,000 and are included in Lease intangibles, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(5)Includes 46.003 acre-feet of water stored with Semitropic Water Storage District, located in Kern County, California and 397 surplus water credits in our account with Westlands Water District, located in Fresno County, California. See Note 3, “Real Estate and Intangible Assets—Investments in Water Assets,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(6)Includes one property classified as held for sale; see Note 3, “Real Estate and Intangible Assets—Real Estate Held for Sale,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information.
(7)Includes two farms consisting of 1,368 total acres and 1,221 farm acres in which we own leasehold interests via two ground leases with the State of Arizona that expire in February 2025 and February 2032, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, these ground leases had an aggregate net cost basis of approximately $376,000 and are included in Lease intangibles, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
(8)Includes ownership in a special-purpose LLC that owns certain irrigation infrastructure that provides water to two of our farms. As of December 31, 2023, this investment had a net carrying value of approximately $4.8 million and is included within Other assets, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets.
ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
In the ordinary course of business incidental to our business, we may be involved in various legal proceedings from time to time which we may not consider material. We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings, nor, to our knowledge, are any material legal proceedings threatened against us.
ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS, AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
The principal market for our common stock is the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “LAND.”
Distribution Information
Since our IPO on January 29, 2013, we have never missed a payment of a scheduled distribution on our common stock, which are declared quarterly and paid monthly. Our Board of Directors regularly evaluates our per-share distribution payments as it monitors the capital markets and the impact that the economy has on the Company. The decision as to whether to authorize and pay distributions on shares of our common stock in the future, as well as the timing, amount, and composition thereof, will be at the sole and absolute discretion of our Board of Directors in light of conditions then existing, including our earnings, taxable income, FFO, adjusted FFO, financial condition, liquidity, capital requirements, debt maturities, the availability of capital, contractual prohibitions or other restrictions, legal requirements (including applicable requirements that we must satisfy to qualify and to maintain our qualification to be taxed as a REIT), and general overall economic conditions and other factors. While the statements above concerning our distribution policy represent our current expectations, any actual distribution payable will be determined by our Board of Directors based upon the circumstances at the time of declaration and the actual number of common shares then outstanding, and any common distribution payable may vary from such expected amounts.
For federal income tax purposes, distributions to our stockholders generally consist of ordinary income, capital gains, nontaxable return of capital, or a combination of those items. Distributions that exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits (calculated for tax purposes) constitute a non-taxable return of capital rather than a dividend and will not be taxable to the extent of the stockholder’s basis in its shares of our stock, which basis will be reduced by an amount equal to such non-taxable distribution. To the extent a distribution exceeds the stockholder’s share of both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the stockholder’s basis in its shares of our stock, that distribution will be treated as a gain from the sale or exchange of that stockholder’s shares of our stock. Every year, we notify stockholders of the taxability of distributions paid to stockholders during the preceding year.
Stockholder Information
As of February 12, 2024:
there were 19 registered holders of record and approximately 53,664 beneficial owners of our common stock; and
other than those owned by the Company, there were no holders of record or beneficial owners of our OP Units. After a mandatory one-year holding period, our OP Units are redeemable at the option of the holder for cash or, at our election, shares of our common stock on a one-for-one basis.
OP Unit Redemptions
Since January 1, 2023, through the date of this filing, no OP Units were tendered for redemption. There are currently no OP Units outstanding other than those owned by the Company.
Sale of Unregistered Securities
We did not sell any unregistered shares of stock during the three months or year ended December 31, 2023.
Issuer Purchaser of Equity Securities
We did not purchase any class of our equity securities registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act during the three months or year ended December 31, 2023.
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative stockholder return (assuming reinvestment of distributions) of our common stock with that of the Standard and Poor’s 500 Index (“S&P 500”) and the FTSE NAREIT All REIT Index (“FNAR”), which is a market capitalization-weighted index that includes all REITs that are listed on the New York Stock Exchange, the American
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Stock Exchange, or the Nasdaq National Market List. The stock performance graph assumes $100 was invested on December 31, 2018.

4265
As of December 31,
Index201820192020202120222023
LAND$100.00 $118.07 $138.58 $327.40 $181.98 $148.32 
S&P 500100.00 128.88 149.83 190.13 153.16 190.27 
FNAR100.00 123.50 111.47 152.60 108.78 117.18 
ITEM 6.RESERVED
ITEM 7.
MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our financial statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
OVERVIEW
General
We are an externally-managed, agricultural real estate investment trust (“REIT”) that is engaged in the business of owning and leasing farmland. We are not a grower of crops, nor do we typically farm the properties we own. We currently own 168 farms comprised of 111,836 acres across 15 states in the U.S. We also own several farm-related facilities, such as cooling facilities, packinghouses, processing facilities, and various storage facilities.
We conduct substantially all of our activities through, and all of our properties are held, directly or indirectly, by, Gladstone Land Limited Partnership (the “Operating Partnership”). Gladstone Land Corporation controls the sole general partner of the Operating Partnership and currently owns, directly or indirectly, 100.0% of the units of limited partnership interest in the
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Operating Partnership (“OP Units”). In addition, we have elected for Gladstone Land Advisers, Inc. (“Land Advisers”), a wholly-owned subsidiary of ours, to be treated as a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”).
Gladstone Management Corporation (our “Adviser”) manages our real estate portfolio pursuant to an advisory agreement, and Gladstone Administration, LLC (our “Administrator”), provides administrative services to us pursuant to an administration agreement.  Our Adviser and our Administrator collectively employ all of our personnel and pay directly their salaries, benefits, and general expenses.
As of February 20, 2024:
we owned 168 farms comprised of 111,836 total acres across 15 states in the U.S.;
our occupancy rate (based on farmable acreage) was 98.9%, and our farms were leased to 93 different, unrelated third-party tenants growing over 60 different types of crops;
the weighted-average remaining lease term across our agricultural real estate holdings was 5.9 years; and
the weighted-average term to maturity of our notes and bonds payable was 8.8 years, and over 99.9% of our notes and bonds payable bore interest at fixed rates; on a weighted-average basis, the remaining fixed-price term of our borrowings was 4.2 years, with an expected weighted-average effective interest rate (after interest patronage, as described below) of 3.34% over that term.
Business Environment
Impact of Inflation and Interest Rates
According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the consumer price index (“CPI”) grew at an annual rate of 3.4% through December 31, 2023, as overall inflation continued to ease from the peak levels experienced in the summer of 2022, when it reached the highest rates seen in over 40 years. The increase in food prices has also slowed but has generally kept pace with the rate of inflation until the past couple of months, as the overall food segment increased at an annual rate of 2.7% through December 31, 2023. In addition, according to the NCREIF Farmland Index, which, as of December 31, 2023, consisted of approximately $16.6 billion of farms across the U.S., the total return on U.S. farmland (including appreciation and income) was 5.0% for the 12 months ended December 31, 2023. Despite the slowdown in food prices in recent months, prices remain high, as the overall food segment increased by 25.2% since from December 2019 to December 2023, outpacing overall inflation of 19.4% over the same time period. If the increases in food prices continue to outpace or at least keep pace with inflation, we believe this will help mitigate any increase in input costs experienced by our farm operators.
To combat inflation, the Federal Reserve raised its benchmark funds rate 11 times between March 2022 and July 2023, resulting in the highest target rate seen since January 2011. Since that time, it has held rates flat, and many now expect the Federal Reserve to begin cutting rates later this year. While we do not currently expect additional rate hikes, the timing of rate cuts, if any, remains uncertain. Despite cooling inflation and a strong labor market, the Federal Reserve has indicated its desire to see more evidence of inflation being on a sustainable path to its target rate of 2.0%. As a result of this uncertainty, interest rates remain somewhat volatile. The yield on the 10-year U.S. Treasury Note has withdrawn from the 16-year high it achieved in October 2023 but still remains above 4.0%. As such, interest rates on long-term financing continue to be high, limiting our ability to finance new acquisitions at favorable terms.
Over 99.9% of our borrowings are currently at fixed rates, and on a weighted-average basis, these rates are fixed at an effective interest rate of 3.34% for another 4.2 years. As such, with respect to our current borrowings, we have experienced minimal impact from the recent increases in interest rates, and we believe we are well-protected against the potential of continued high interest rates or any further interest rate increases.
California Water Outlook
Moving into 2024, we continue to see the impacts of the extremely wet year California experienced starting in early 2023. Due to the extreme rainfall and snowpack over the past year, California has come out of drought conditions, and its reservoir levels remain above historical averages. The 2023 water year carry-over should provide stability in 2024, reducing the dependency on historic rain events to keep the state out of drought conditions. If 2024 proves to be another average or above-average year in terms of precipitation, we expect the continuation of programs developed by certain California water districts for the long-term storage of excess water supplies, which would create opportunities to capture and store more water.
With the continued implementation of the Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (“SGMA”), farmland operators continue to experience groundwater restrictions across the state. These restrictions have led to the implementation of supplemental water projects that allow farmland owners and operators to capture or import surplus surface water supplies. Significant investments were made in these projects in 2023, led by farmers and water districts to take advantage of the excess water supplies made available by the state. These water supplies are critical to the long-term water strategy for farmers, allowing them to acquire
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supplemental water in wet years and store that water for use in dry years when supplemental water is in short supply or unavailable.
Factors Impacting Agricultural Land Values in our Regions of Focus
Western U.S.
In the past year, land values in the western U.S. have been heavily impacted by the higher interest rate environment and depressed crop pricing, particularly in almonds, wine grapes, and apples. The almond and wine grape industries have experienced large amounts of acres being removed, and the increased cost of capital is preventing much of that acreage from being replanted at this time. Row crops and pistachios are faring much better and are experiencing stronger profitability, despite an increase in bearing acreage of pistachios. With water being more abundant, row crop acreage has increased, which could put downward pressure on future pricing of these crops. The cost of most crop inputs have leveled off; however, there continue to be shortages of certain equipment and some petroleum-based inputs.
Large amounts of land are becoming available in the Central Valley of California; however, while smaller acreages are transacting rather quickly, larger holdings are sitting on the market longer. Groundwater plans to be in compliance with SGMA are being approved and implemented, which continues to significantly impact land values. Values of land that is short on water are decreasing to levels not seen in decades, while land with sufficient water resources is selling for extremely high prices, a trend that we expect to see continue for the next several years. Coastal California land is still in short supply, and values are either stable or increasing. Land values in the Pacific Northwest have been relatively stable despite troubles in the wine grape and apple industries.
Southeastern U.S.
Values of farmland in the Southeast growing fruits and vegetables continue to increase at a steady pace, driven in part by significant and sustained migration to that region. Our land holdings in Florida, in particular, have benefited greatly from a substantial amount of residential development and state projects taking place in the surrounding areas, all putting upward pressure on the value of our portfolio in the region.
Despite ongoing pressure from production in Mexico, the strawberry industry has continued to thrive, resulting in upward rent pressure on our farms, and vegetable ground has also seen steady demand. Further, after a decade-long decline in citrus due to falling consumer demand and production declines caused by the plant disease known as “citrus greening,” we are seeing the citrus industry start to stabilize, as acreage has right-sized, and new applications to combat citrus greening and other blights have proven very effective.
Portfolio Diversification
Since our initial public offering in January 2013 (the “IPO”), we have expanded our portfolio from 12 farms leased to 7 different, unrelated tenants to a current portfolio of 168 farms leased to 93 different, unrelated third-party tenants who grow over 60 different types of crops on our farms. Our investment focus is in farmland suitable for growing either fresh produce annual row crops (e.g., certain berries and vegetables) or certain permanent crops (e.g., almonds, blueberries, pistachios, and wine grapes), with an ancillary focus on farmland growing certain commodity crops (e.g., beans and corn).
The acquisition of additional farms since our IPO has also allowed us to further diversify our portfolio geographically. The following table summarizes the geographic locations (by state) of our farms owned as of and during the years ended December 31, 2023, 2022, and 2021 (dollars in thousands):
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 As of and For the Year Ended
December 31, 2023
As of and For the Year Ended
December 31, 2022
As of and For the Year Ended
December 31, 2021
StateNo.
of
Farms
Total
Acres
% of
Total
Acres
Lease
Revenue
% of
Total
Lease
Revenue
No.
of
Farms
Total
Acres
% of
Total
Acres
Lease
Revenue
% of
Total
Lease
Revenue
No.
of
Farms
Total
Acres
% of
Total
Acres
Lease
Revenue
% of
Total
Lease
Revenue
California(1)
6334,84430.1%$59,143 65.5%6334,84430.1%$61,118 68.5%6233,02729.3%$49,644 65.9%
Florida(2)
2622,46819.4%15,076 16.7%2622,60619.5%14,537 16.3%2622,59120.1%13,675 18.2%
Washington62,5202.2%4,651 5.1%62,5292.2%3,401 3.8%31,3841.2%2,384 3.2%
Colorado1232,77328.3%2,564 2.8%1232,77328.3%2,153 2.4%1232,77329.1%2,675 3.6%
Arizona66,3205.5%2,263 2.5%66,3205.5%2,100 2.4%66,2805.6%1,951 2.6%
Oregon68980.8%2,181 2.4%68980.8%1,710 1.9%57260.6%854 1.1%
Nebraska97,7826.7%1,778 2.0%97,7826.7%1,712 1.9%97,7826.9%1,588 2.1%
Michigan231,8921.6%966 1.1%231,8921.6%786 0.9%231,8921.7%1,040 1.4%
Maryland69870.9%461 0.5%69870.8%453 0.5%69870.9%476 0.6%
Texas13,6673.2%450 0.5%13,6673.2%450 0.5%13,6673.3%450 0.6%
South Carolina35970.5%244 0.3%35970.5%244 0.3%35970.5%244 0.3%
Georgia22300.2%224 0.3%22300.2%224 0.3%22300.2%31 —%
New Jersey31160.1%129 0.1%31160.1%129 —%31160.1%75 0.1%
North Carolina23100.3%114 0.1%23100.3%145 0.2%23100.3%150 0.2%
Delaware11800.2%75 0.1%11800.2%74 0.1%11800.2%81 0.1%
TOTALS169115,584100.0%$90,319 100.0%169115,731100.0%$89,236 100.0%164112,542100.0%$75,318 100.0%
(1)According to the California Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, there are eight distinct growing regions within California; our farms are spread across six of these growing regions.
(2)Includes a 3,748-acre farm that was sold on January 11, 2024.
Leases
General
Most of our leases are on a triple-net basis, an arrangement under which, in addition to rent, the tenant is required to directly pay the related taxes, insurance costs, maintenance, and other operating costs. Our leases generally have original terms ranging from 3 to 10 years for farms growing row crops and 7 to 15 years for farms growing permanent crops (in each case, often with options to extend the lease further). Rent is generally payable to us in advance on either an annual or semi-annual basis, with such rent typically subject to periodic escalation clauses provided for within the lease. Currently, 105 of our farms are leased on a pure, triple-net basis, 45 farms are leased on a partial-net basis (with us, as landlord, responsible for all or a portion of the related property taxes), 3 farms are leased on a single-net basis (with us, as landlord, responsible for the related property taxes, as well as certain maintenance, repairs, and insurance costs), and 15 farms are vacant. Additionally, 27 of our farms are leased under agreements that include a variable rent component, called “participation rents,” that are based on the gross revenues earned on the respective farms (though such leases generally include a guarantee of a minimum amount of rental income).
Lease Expirations
Agricultural leases are often shorter term in nature (relative to leases of other types of real estate assets), so in any given year, we may have multiple leases up for extension or renewal. The following table summarizes the lease expirations by year for the farms owned and with leases in place as of December 31, 2023 (dollars in thousands):
Year
Number of
Expiring
Leases(1)
Expiring / Expired
Leased Acreage
% of Total
Acreage
Lease Revenue for the Year Ended December 31, 2023% of Total
Lease
Revenue
202489,1717.9%$9,361 10.4%
20251120,72917.9%7,899 8.7%
20261111,70610.1%5,851 6.5%
202767,1236.2%10,304 11.4%
2028135,1984.5%6,422 7.1%
Thereafter4956,34948.8%46,608 51.6%
Other(2)
1337—%485 0.5%
Terminated/expired leases and sold properties(3)
N/A5,2714.6%3,389 3.8%
Totals111115,584100.0%$90,319 100.0%
(1)Certain lease agreements encompass multiple farms.
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(2)Primarily consists of ancillary leases (e.g., renewable energy leases; oil, gas, and mineral leases; telecommunications leases; etc.) with varying expirations on certain of our farms.
(3)Includes approximately $463,000 of lease revenue recorded from 15 farms on which the respective leases expired during the three months ended December 31, 2023, and remain vacant, and approximately $2.9 million from one farm that was sold subsequent to December 31, 2023, which expired on December 31, 2023.
We currently have one agricultural lease scheduled to expire within the next six months on a farm in California. We are currently in negotiations with the existing tenant on the farm, as well as other potential tenants, and we anticipate being able to renew the lease at its current market rental rate without incurring any downtime on the farm. We may choose to replant a portion of this farm with new plantings, which would likely result in a decrease in cash rent for the first few years while the new plantings are being established. Regarding all vacancies and upcoming lease expirations, there can be no assurance that we will be able to renew the existing leases or execute new leases at rental rates favorable to us, if at all, or be able to find replacement tenants, if necessary.
Recent Developments
Portfolio Activity—Existing Properties
Property Sales
On June 23, 2023, we completed the sale of a 138-acre parcel of unfarmed land in Florida for $9.6 million. Including closing costs, we recognized a net gain on the sale of approximately $6.4 million.
On January 11, 2024, we completed the sale of a 3,748-acre farm in Martin County, Florida, for approximately $65.7 million. Including closing costs, we recognized a net gain on the sale of approximately $10.4 million.
Leasing Activity
The following table summarizes certain leasing activity that has occurred on our existing properties since January 1, 2023, through the date of this filing (dollars in thousands, except for footnotes):
PRIOR LEASES
NEW LEASES(1)
Farm
Locations
Number
of
Leases
Total
Farm
Acres
Total
Annualized
Straight-line
Rent(2)
# of Leases
with
Participation
Rents
Lease
Structures
(# of NNN
/ NN / N)(3)
Total
Annualized
Straight-line
Rent
(2)
Wtd. Avg.
Term
(Years)
# of Leases
with
Participation
Rents
Lease
Structures
(# of NNN
/ NN / N)
(3)
CA, CO, FL, MI, NC, & NE3148,670$24,051 618 / 11 / 2$23,838 6.9414 / 17 / 0
(1)In connection with certain of these leases, we committed to provide capital for certain improvements on these farms. See Note 7, “Commitments and Contingencies—Operating Obligations,” within the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for additional information on these and other commitments.
(2)Based on the minimum cash rental payments guaranteed under the applicable leases (presented on an annualized basis), as required under GAAP, and generally excludes contingent rental payments, such as participation rents.
(3)“NNN” refers to leases under triple-net lease arrangements, “NN” refers to leases under partial-net lease arrangements, and “N” refers to leases under single-net lease arrangements, in each case, as described above under “Leases—General.”
Vacant, Self-operated, and Non-accrual Properties
During a portion of the year ended December 31, 2023, we had 22 farms (7 in California, 14 in Michigan, and 1 in Washington) that were either vacant, self-operated, or on which lease revenues were recognized on a cash basis (due to credit issues with three tenants causing us to determine that the full collectability of the remaining rental payments under the respective leases were not deemed to be probable).
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recorded lease revenues related to the aforementioned farms of approximately $2.8 million (including approximately $240,000 of participation rents), as compared to approximately $4.0 million (including approximately $829,000 of participation rents) and approximately $4.3 million (including approximately $121,000 of participation rents) during the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Currently, 15 farms (14 in Michigan and 1 in Washington) are vacant, and 5 farms in California remain on non-accrual status.
Regarding the vacant farms, we are exploring both leasing and selling options, and we are in discussions with both potential tenants and potential buyers for these farms. We currently expect to come to agreements within the next six months on these farms; however, there can be no guarantee that we will be able to reach lease or sale agreements with tenants or buyers at favorable terms, or at all.
Regarding the properties currently on non-accrual status, the tenants on three of the five farms are current with their rental payments to us. We are continuing to work with the tenant leasing the other two farms and will seek to come to an agreement
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for the remaining rental payments, if possible. Such agreement, if one can be reached, may include placing the tenant on a payment plan, deferring a portion of the rent owed to us, or agreeing to terminate the lease. In the event of a termination, we estimate that we would be able to find new tenants to lease each of these properties to at market rental rates within 1 to 12 months.
Water Asset Acquisitions
During the three months ended December 31, 2023, we obtained a contract to purchase 1,003 acre-feet of banked water held by Semitropic Water Storage District (“SWSD”), a water storage district located in Kern County, California, which was received from one of our tenants as partial consideration for a rent payment owed. We subsequently executed the contract to purchase all 1,003 acre-feet of banked water for an aggregate cost of approximately $61,000. We currently have a total of 46,003 acre-feet of banked water held by SWSD at a total carrying value of approximately $34.5 million.
In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2023, we elected to participate in a groundwater recharge program established by Westlands Water District (“WWD”), a water district located in Fresno County, California. Under the program, WWD will pay for surplus surface water to be delivered to individual landowners’ properties with district-approved groundwater recharge facilities, also known as “water banks.” The landowner would be allowed to keep 50% of the net amount of groundwater credits generated under the program (after allowing for certain leave-behind and evaporative losses), and the remaining 50% would be used to recharge the aquifer and retained by WWD. Delivery of water under this program is subject to surplus water availability at WWD’s discretion, and WWD has not yet announced a termination date for this program. To date, we have obtained 397 water credits, which represents 50% of the total net water credits generated and confirmed by WWD under the program thus far, at a total carrying value of approximately $111,000.
During the year ended December 31, 2023, we also entered into various other agreements with certain third parties (including local water districts and private individuals) to either buy water directly, buy a portion of other water districts’ surface water allocations in future years in which allocations are granted, or to store surface water on others’ behalf in one of our groundwater recharge facilities in exchange for a portion of the net groundwater credits produced and recognized by the respective water district.
We currently own a total of 46,400 acre-feet of long-term water assets, and our investments in these long-term water assets have an aggregate carrying value of approximately $34.6 million.
To date, we have invested approximately $1.8 million to construct groundwater recharge facilities on two of our farms, and we have invested an additional $1.8 million in the aggregate in connection with these agreements that are expected to result in additional groundwater credits in the future; however, the amount and timing of these credits, if any, is currently unknown and is dependent upon and subject to the recognition of such credits by the respective water districts, in their sole discretion.
California Floods
In January 2023, periods of heavy rainfall in California resulted in floods that impacted several areas of the state, including regions where certain of our farms are located. As a result of the flooding, one of our farms in the Central Valley suffered damage to certain structures located on the farm, and we estimated the carrying value of the structures on this property damaged by the floods to be approximately $855,000. As such, during the year ended December 31, 2023, we wrote down the carrying value of these structures and also recorded a corresponding property and casualty loss. Certain of our other farms in California suffered minor damage as a result of the floods, but no other farms were materially impacted.
In addition, in February 2024, certain parts of California, particularly the southern part of the state, experienced a “one-in-one-thousand year” rainfall event, as atmospheric river storms caused widespread flooding and mudslides in multiple areas. Certain of our farms in the state suffered minor damage as a result of the storms, but no farms were materially impacted.
Financing Activity
Debt Activity
Loan Repayments
From January 1, 2023, through the date of this filing, we repaid approximately $52.2 million of notes and bonds that were either maturing or scheduled for a price reset. On a weighted-average basis, these borrowings bore interest at a stated rate of 3.55% and an effective interest rate (after interest patronage, where applicable) of 3.43%.
MetLife Facility
On December 14, 2023, we amended our facility with Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (“MetLife”), which currently consists of a $75.0 million long-term note payable (the “2020 MetLife Term Note”), $75.0 million of revolving equity lines of credit (the “MetLife Lines of Credit”), and a $100.0 million long-term note payable (the “2022 MetLife Term Note,” and
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together with the 2020 MetLife Term Note and the MetLife Lines of Credit, the “Current MetLife Facility”). Pursuant to the amendment, the maturity dates of the MetLife Lines of Credit were extended to December 15, 2033. As part of this amendment, we paid aggregate fees of approximately $188,000 to MetLife.
Farmer Mac Facility
On June 2, 2023, we amended our agreement with Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (“Farmer Mac”), which provides for bond issuances up to an aggregate amount of $225.0 million (the “Farmer Mac Facility”). Pursuant to the amendment, the date through which we may issue new bonds under the Farmer Mac Facility was extended to December 31, 2026, and the final maturity date for new bonds issued under the facility will be the date that is ten years from the applicable issuance date.
Farm Credit Notes Payable—Interest Patronage
From time to time since September 2014, we, through certain subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership, have entered into various loan agreements (collectively, the “Farm Credit Notes Payable”) with 13 different Farm Credit associations (collectively, “Farm Credit”). During the three months ended March 31, 2023, we recorded interest patronage of approximately $2.3 million related to interest accrued on the Farm Credit Notes Payable during the year ended December 31, 2022. During the three months ended September 30, 2022, we received approximately $113,000 of interest patronage, as certain Farm Credit associations paid a portion of the 2022 interest patronage (which relates to interest accrued during 2022 but is typically paid during the first half of 2023) early. In total, 2022 interest patronage resulted in a 24.1% reduction (approximately 109 basis points) to the interest rates on such borrowings. In addition, during the three months ended September 30, 2023, we recorded approximately $111,000 of interest patronage, as certain Farm Credit associations paid a portion of the 2023 interest patronage early. For further discussion on interest patronage, refer to Note 4, “Borrowings—Farm Credit Notes Payable—Interest Patronage,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Equity Activity
Series C Preferred Stock
On April 3, 2020, we filed a prospectus supplement with the SEC for a continuous public offering (the “Series C Offering”) of our 6.00% Series C Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock (the “Series C Preferred Stock”). Under the Series C Offering, as amended, we were permitted to sell up to 10,200,000 shares of our Series C Preferred Stock on a “reasonable best efforts” basis through Gladstone Securities at an offering price of $25.00 per share (the “Primary Series C Offering”) and up to 200,000 additional shares of our Series C Preferred Stock pursuant to our dividend reinvestment plan (the “DRIP”) at a price of $22.75 per share. The Primary Series C Offering terminated on December 31, 2022, and the DRIP was terminated effective March 22, 2023.
During the three months ended June 30, 2023, we listed the Series C Preferred Stock on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “LANDP.” Trading of the Series C Preferred Stock on Nasdaq commenced on June 8, 2023.
From January 1, 2023, through the date we listed the Series C Preferred Stock on Nasdaq, we issued approximately 14,069 shares of the Series C Preferred Stock pursuant to the DRIP and redeemed 48,913 shares that were tendered for optional redemption, which we satisfied with an aggregate cash payment of approximately $1.2 million.
Series E Preferred Stock
On November 9, 2022, we filed a prospectus supplement with the SEC for a continuous public offering (the “Series E Offering”) of up to 8,000,000 shares of our newly-designated 5.00% Series E Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (the “Series E Preferred Stock”), on a “reasonable best efforts” basis through Gladstone Securities at an offering price of $25.00 per share. See Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—Gladstone Securities—Dealer-Manager Agreements,” for a discussion of the commissions and fees to be paid to Gladstone Securities in connection with the Series E Offering.
The following table summarizes the sales of our Series E Preferred Stock that occurred from January 1, 2023, through the date of this filing (dollars in thousands):
Number of
Shares Sold
Weighted-average
Offering Price Per Share
Gross Proceeds
Net Proceeds(1)
247,781$24.96 $6,184 $5,575 
(1)Net of underwriting discounts and selling commissions and dealer-manager fees borne by us. Aggregate selling commissions and dealer-manager fees paid to Gladstone Securities as a result of these sales was approximately $609,000.
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The Series E Offering will terminate on the date (the “Series E Termination Date”) that is the earlier of (i) December 31, 2025 (unless terminated or extended by our Board of Directors) and (ii) the date on which all 8,000,000 shares of Series E Preferred Stock offering in the Series E Offering are sold. There is currently no public market for shares of Series E Preferred Stock. We intend to apply to list the Series E Preferred Stock on Nasdaq or another national securities exchange within one calendar year after the Series E Termination Date; however, there can be no assurance that a listing will be achieved in such timeframe, or at all.
Common Stock—At-the-Market Program
On May 12, 2020, we entered into equity distribution agreements with Virtu Americas, LLC, and Ladenburg Thalmann & Co., Inc. (each a “Sales Agent”), that, as subsequently amended, permitted us to issue and sell, from time to time and through the Sales Agents, shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $260.0 million (the “ATM Program”). On April 13, 2023, we entered into separate amended and restated equity distribution agreements with the Sales Agents to allow us to sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $500.0 million.
The following table summarizes the activity under the ATM Program from January 1, 2023, through the date of this filing (dollars in thousands):
Number of Shares SoldWeighted-average
Offering Price
Per Share
Gross Proceeds
Net Proceeds(1)
788,045$19.34 $15,240 $15,087 
(1)Net of underwriter commissions.
LIBOR Transition
The majority of our debt is at fixed rates, and we currently have very limited exposure to variable-rate debt. Previously, our variable-rate debt was based upon the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”), which was phased out in June 2023. LIBOR has since transitioned to a new standard rate, the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”), which was formally adopted by the Alternative Reference Rates Committee in July 2021 as a benchmark interest rate that incorporates certain overnight repo market data collected from multiple data sets. The intent was to adjust the SOFR to minimize the differences between the interest that a borrower was paying using LIBOR versus what it will be paying SOFR. Our lines of credit with MetLife and four term loans with Rabo AgriFinance LLC (which are effectively fixed through our entry into interest swap agreements) were previously indexed based on LIBOR, and all have since transitioned to SOFR, resulting in a minimal impact to our overall operations.
Our Adviser and Administrator
We are externally managed pursuant to contractual arrangements with our Adviser and our Administrator (both affiliates of ours), which collectively employ all of our personnel and pay their salaries, benefits, and general expenses directly. The investment advisory agreement with our Adviser that was in effect from January 1, 2020, through June 30, 2021 (the “Prior Advisory Agreement”), was amended and restated effective July 1, 2021 (as amended, the “Current Advisory Agreement,” and together with the Prior Advisory Agreement, the “Advisory Agreements”). The Current Advisory Agreement revised the calculation of the base management fee beginning with the three months ended September 30, 2021, while all other terms of the Prior Advisory Agreement remained the same. Each of the Advisory Agreements and the current administration agreement with our Administrator (the “Administration Agreement”) were approved unanimously by our Board of Directors, including, specifically, our independent directors.
A summary of certain compensation terms within the Advisory Agreements and a summary of the Administration Agreement is below.
Advisory Agreements
Pursuant to each of the Advisory Agreements, our Adviser is compensated in the form of a base management fee, an incentive fee, a capital gains fee, and a termination fee. Our Adviser does not charge acquisition or disposition fees when we acquire or dispose of properties, as is common in other externally-managed REITs. The base management and incentive fees are described below. For information on the capital gains and termination fees, refer to Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—Our Adviser and Administrator—Advisory Agreements,” within the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Base Management Fee
Pursuant to the Prior Advisory Agreement, through June 30, 2021, a base management fee was paid quarterly and was calculated at an annual rate of 0.50% (0.125% per quarter), of the prior calendar quarter’s “Gross Tangible Real Estate,”
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defined as the gross cost of tangible real estate owned by us (including land and land improvements, permanent plantings, irrigation and drainage systems, farm-related facilities, and other tangible site improvements), prior to any accumulated depreciation, and as shown on our balance sheet or the notes thereto for the applicable quarter.
Pursuant to the Current Advisory Agreement, beginning with the three months ended September 30, 2021, a base management fee is paid quarterly and is calculated at an annual rate of 0.60% (0.15% per quarter) of the prior calendar quarter’s Gross Tangible Real Estate.
Incentive Fee
Pursuant to each of the Advisory Agreements, an incentive fee is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears if the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO for a particular quarter exceeds a hurdle rate of 1.75% (7.0% annualized) of the prior calendar quarter’s Total Adjusted Common Equity.
For purposes of this calculation, Pre-Incentive Fee FFO is defined in each of the Advisory Agreements as FFO (also as defined in each of the Advisory Agreements) accrued by the Company during the current calendar quarter (prior to any incentive fee calculation for the current calendar quarter), less any dividends paid on preferred stock securities that are not treated as a liability for GAAP purposes. In addition, Total Adjusted Common Equity is defined as common stockholders’ equity plus non-controlling common interests in our Operating Partnership, if any (each as reported on our balance sheet), adjusted to exclude unrealized gains and losses and certain other one-time events and non-cash items.
We pay our Adviser an incentive fee with respect to our Pre-Incentive Fee FFO quarterly, as follows:
no Incentive Fee in any calendar quarter in which our Pre-Incentive Fee FFO does not exceed the hurdle rate of 1.75% (7.0% annualized);
100% of the amount of our Pre-Incentive Fee FFO with respect to that portion of such Pre-Incentive Fee FFO, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized); and
20% of the amount of our Pre-Incentive fee FFO, if any, that exceeds 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized).
Quarterly Incentive Fee Based on Pre-Incentive Fee FFO
Pre-Incentive Fee FFO
(expressed as a percentage of Total Adjusted Common Equity)
feegrapha14.jpg
Percentage of Pre-Incentive Fee FFO allocated to Incentive Fee
Administration Agreement
Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, we pay for our allocable portion of the Administrator’s expenses incurred while performing its obligations to us, including, but not limited to, rent and the salaries and benefits expenses of our Administrator’s employees, including our chief financial officer, treasurer, chief compliance officer, general counsel and secretary (who also serves as our Administrator’s president, general counsel, and secretary), and their respective staffs. Our allocable portion of the Administrator’s expenses is generally derived by multiplying our Administrator’s total expenses by the approximate percentage of time the Administrator’s employees perform services for us in relation to their time spent performing services for all companies serviced by our Administrator under similar contractual agreements.
Critical Accounting Policies
The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make judgments that are subjective in nature to make certain estimates and assumptions. Application of these accounting policies involves the exercise of judgment regarding the use of assumptions as to future uncertainties, and, as a result, actual results could materially differ from these estimates. A summary of all of our significant accounting policies are provided in Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements, located elsewhere in this Form 10-K, and a summary of our critical accounting policies is below. We consider these policies to be critical because they involve estimates and assumptions that require complex, subjective or significant judgments in their application and that materially affect our results of operations. There were no material changes in our critical accounting policies during the year ended December 31, 2023.
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Purchase Price Allocation
When we acquire real estate, we allocate the purchase price to: (i) the tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, consisting primarily of land, improvements (including irrigation and drainage systems), permanent plantings, and farm-related facilities and, if applicable, (ii) any identifiable intangible assets and liabilities, which primarily consist of the values of above- and below-market leases, in-place lease values, lease origination costs, and tenant relationships, based in each case on their fair values.
Certain of our acquisitions involve sale-leaseback transactions with newly-originated leases, and other of our acquisitions involve the acquisition of farmland that is already being operated as rental property, in which case we will typically assume the lease in place at the time of acquisition. We generally consider both types of acquisitions to be asset acquisitions under ASC 360, “Property Plant and Equipment,” which requires us to capitalize the transaction costs incurred in connection with the acquisition. ASC 360 further requires that the purchase price of real estate be allocated to (i) the tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and, if applicable, (ii) any identifiable intangible assets and liabilities, by valuing the property as if it was vacant, based on management’s determination of the relative fair values of such assets and liabilities as of the date of acquisition.
For a more detailed discussion on this accounting policy, see Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Real Estate and Lease Intangibles,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Real Estate Impairment Evaluation
We account for the impairment of our real estate assets in accordance with ASC 360, which requires us to periodically review the carrying value of each property to determine whether indicators of impairment exist or if depreciation periods should be modified. If circumstances support the possibility of impairment, we prepare a projection of the total undiscounted future cash flows of the specific property and compare them to the net book value of the property to determine whether the carrying value of the property is recoverable. If impairment is indicated, the carrying value of the property is written down to its estimated fair value based on our best estimate of the property’s discounted future cash flows using certain market-derived terms. Any material changes to the estimates and assumptions used in this analysis could have a significant impact on our results of operations, as the changes would impact our determination of whether impairment is deemed to have occurred and the amount of impairment loss that we would recognize.
For a more detailed discussion on this accounting policy, see Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Real Estate Impairment Evaluation,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Recently-Issued Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Recently-Issued Accounting Pronouncements,” in the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for a description of recently-issued accounting pronouncements.
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
For the purposes of the following discussions on certain operating revenues and expenses:
With regard to the comparison between the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022:
Same-property basis represents farms owned as of December 31, 2021, which were not vacant at any point during either period presented and full collectability of future rental payments under the respective leases was deemed probable during the entirety of both periods;
Properties acquired or disposed of are farms that were either acquired or disposed of at any point subsequent to December 31, 2021. From January 1, 2022, through December 31, 2023, we acquired five new farms and had one partial farm disposition; and
Vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties are:
Farms that were vacant (either wholly or partially) at any point during either period presented. Five of our farms were vacant during a portion of either of the years ended December 31, 2023 or 2022;
Farms that were self-operated at any point during either period presented. 11 of our farms were self-operated (on a temporary basis via management agreements with unrelated third-parties) during a portion of the year ended December 31, 2023; and
Farms with leases where revenue was recognized on a cash basis during either period presented (rather than a straight-line basis) due to full collectability of future rental payments under the respective leases deemed not to be probable as a result of tenant credit issues. During a portion of the year ended
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December 31, 2023, we recognized revenue from four different leases with three separate tenants (encompassing six different farms) on a cash basis.
A comparison of results of components comprising our operating income for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 is below (dollars in thousands):
For the Years Ended December 31,
 
20232022
$ Change
% Change
Operating revenues:
Lease revenue:
Fixed lease payments
$83,695 $81,423 $2,272 2.8%
Variable lease payments – participation rents
5,890 7,703 (1,813)(23.5)%
Variable lease payments – tenant reimbursements
734 110 624 567.3%
Total lease revenue
90,319 89,236 1,083 1.2%
Other operating revenue
79 — 79 
NM
Total operating revenues
90,398 89,236 1,162 1.3%
Operating expenses:
Depreciation and amortization
37,161 35,366 1,795 5.1%
Property operating expenses
4,201 2,819 1,382 49.0%
Base management and incentive fees
10,374 11,532 (1,158)(10.0)%
Administration fee
2,255 2,005 250 12.5%
General and administrative expenses
2,924 2,740 184 6.7%
Write-off of costs associated with offering of Series C cumulative redeemable preferred stock— 853 (853)NM
Total operating expenses
56,915 55,315 1,600 2.9%
Operating income
$33,483 $33,921 $(438)(1.3)%
NM = Not Meaningful
Operating Revenues
Lease Revenue
The following table provides a summary of our lease revenue during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (dollars in thousands):
For the Years Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Same-property basis:
Fixed lease payments$76,866 $76,182 $684 0.9%
Participation rents5,650 6,874 (1,224)(17.8)%
Total – Same-property basis82,516 83,056 (540)(0.7)%
Properties acquired or disposed of:
Fixed lease payments4,357 2,067 2,290 110.8%
Total – Properties acquired or disposed of4,357 2,067 2,290 110.8%
Vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties:
Fixed lease payments2,472 3,174 (702)(22.1)%
Participation rents240 829 (589)(71.0)%
Total – Vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties2,712 4,003 (1,291)(32.3)%
Tenant reimbursements(1)
734 110 624 567.3%
Total Lease revenues$90,319 $89,236 $1,083 1.2%
(1)Tenant reimbursements generally represent tenant-reimbursed property operating expenses on certain of our farms, including property taxes, insurance premiums, and other property-related expenses. Similar amounts were also recorded as property operating expenses during the respective periods.
Same-property Basis – 2023 compared to 2022
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Lease revenues from fixed lease payments increased primarily due to additional rents earned on capital improvements completed on certain of our farms, partially offset by the execution of one lease agreement in the fourth quarter of 2022, pursuant to which we agreed to reduce the fixed base rent amount in exchange for increasing the participation rent component in the lease, the majority of which was realized in the fourth quarter of 2023.
The decrease in participation rents was primarily driven by lower production (i.e., pounds per acre) on certain almond and pistachio farms (partly due to the alternate-bearing nature of such tree crops but also due to the harvest of such crops coming at the end of a multi-year drought), coupled with weaker crop prices, particularly in the almond market, which continued to be hampered with oversupply exacerbated by supply chain disruptions that occurred during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Other – 2023 compared to 2022
Lease revenue from properties acquired or disposed of increased primarily due to additional revenues earned on new farms acquired subsequent to December 31, 2021.
Fixed lease payments from vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties decreased primarily due to revenue from certain of our leases being recognized on a cash basis during a portion of the year ended December 31, 2023 (rather than a straight-line basis), due to full collectability of future rental payments under the respective leases deemed not to be probable as a result of tenant credit issues. In addition, 11 of our farms were self-operated (on a temporary basis via management agreements with unrelated third-parties) and 5 of our farms were vacant during portions of the year ended December 31, 2023. The decrease in lease revenue from vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties was partially offset by cash collections (in part or in whole) from tenants occupying certain of these properties during the year ended December 31, 2023. No revenue has been recognized as a result of operations at farms that were self-operated during any period presented.
The fluctuations in tenant reimbursement revenue are primarily driven by payments made by certain tenants on our behalf (pursuant to the lease agreements) to unconsolidated entities of ours that convey water to the respective properties. As such, the timing of tenant reimbursement revenue fluctuates as payments are made by our tenants. Amounts recorded during the current year include increased reimbursements from certain tenants for costs to delivery water to their farms via a pipeline owned by an unconsolidated entity of ours, as well as late fees received from certain tenants.
Other Operating Revenue
Other operating revenue consists of non-lease revenue generated as a result of activities performed on certain of our properties. During the year ended December 31, 2023, we recognized approximately $79,000 of non-cash revenue associated with the transfer and storing of surplus water on behalf of a government municipality using a groundwater recharge facility constructed on one of our farms. See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Other Operating Revenue, and Note 3, “Real Estate and Intangible Assets—Investments in Water Assets,” within the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements for further discussion.
Operating Expenses
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation and amortization expense increased primarily due to additional depreciation and amortization expense incurred on new farms acquired subsequent to December 31, 2021, as well as additional depreciation expense associated with new capital improvements made on certain of our existing farms. The increase was partially offset by a decrease attributable to certain assets reaching the end of their useful lives.
Property Operating Expenses
Property operating expenses consist primarily of real estate taxes, repair and maintenance expense, insurance premiums, and other miscellaneous operating expenses paid for certain of our properties. The following table provides a summary of the property operating expenses recorded during the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (dollars in thousands):
For the Years Ended December 31,
20232022$ Change% Change
Same-property basis$2,785 $2,407 $378 15.7%
Properties acquired or disposed of 29 (23)(79.3)%
Vacant, self-operated properties, or non-accrual, properties723 273 450 164.8%
Tenant-reimbursed property operating expenses(1)
687 110 577 524.5%
Total Property operating expenses$4,201 $2,819 $1,382 49.0%
(1)Represents certain operating expenses (property taxes, insurance premiums, and other property-related expenses) paid by us that, per the respective leases, are required to be reimbursed to us by the tenant. Similar amounts are also recorded as lease revenue when earned in accordance with the lease.
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Same-property Basis – 2023 compared to 2022
Property operating expenses increased primarily due to additional property management and consulting fees incurred across our portfolio, as well as higher legal fees related to drafting new lease agreements. We also recorded additional repairs and maintenance expense as a result of minor damage caused by natural disasters at certain of our farms. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in real estate tax expense.
Other – 2023 compared to 2022
Property operating expenses on properties acquired or disposed of decreased, primarily due to additional legal fees incurred in the prior year periods on certain farms acquired subsequent to December 31, 2021.
Property operating expenses attributable to vacant, self-operated, or non-accrual properties increased primarily due to additional legal fees incurred in connection with rent collection, lease termination, or re-leasing efforts on such farms, as well as an increase in real estate tax expense that the prior tenants were previously responsible for.
The fluctuations in tenant-reimbursed property operating expenses are primarily driven by miscellaneous property operating costs incurred by us in connection with our ownership interests in certain unconsolidated entities, for which our tenants are contractually obligated to reimburse us under the terms of the respective leases. Such expenses will fluctuate commensurate with the timing and amount of miscellaneous operating costs incurred by the underlying entities. Amounts recorded during the current year include additional costs to deliver water to certain of our farms via a pipeline owned by an unconsolidated entity of ours, which costs were reimbursed to us by our tenants.
Related-Party Fees
The following table provides the calculations of the base management and incentive fees due to our Advisor pursuant to the Current Advisory Agreement for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022 (dollars in thousands; for further discussion on certain defined terms used below, refer to Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions,” within the accompanying notes to our consolidated financial statements):
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Quarters EndedYear to Date
March 31June 30September 30December 31
FY 2023 Fee Calculations:
Base Management Fee:
Gross Tangible Real Estate(1)(2)
$1,432,394 $1,431,761 $1,433,713 $1,437,268
Quarterly rate0.150 %0.150 %0.150 %0.150 %
Base management fee(3)
$2,149 $2,148 $2,150 $2,156 $8,603 
Incentive Fee:
Total Adjusted Common Equity(1)(2)
$358,689 $362,411 $360,339 $353,412 
First hurdle quarterly rate1.750 %1.750 %1.750 %1.750 %
First hurdle threshold$6,277 $6,342 $6,306 $6,185 
Second hurdle quarterly rate2.1875 %2.1875 %2.1875 %2.1875 %
Second hurdle threshold$7,846 $7,928 $7,882 $7,731 
Pre-Incentive Fee FFO(1)
$5,303 $4,400 $7,095 $7,167 
100% of Pre-Incentive Fee FFO in excess of first hurdle threshold, up to second hurdle threshold$— $— $789 $982 
20% of Pre-Incentive Fee FFO in excess of second hurdle threshold— — — — 
Total Incentive fee(3)
$ $ $789 $982 $1,771 
Total fees due to Adviser, net$2,149 $2,148 $2,939 $3,138 $10,374 
FY 2022 Fee Calculations:
Base Management Fee:
Gross Tangible Real Estate(1)(2)
$1,357,800 $1,361,757 $1,390,646 $1,427,482 
Quarterly rate0.150 %0.150 %0.150 %0.150 %
Base management fee(3)
$2,037 $2,043 $2,086 $2,141 $8,307 
Incentive Fee:
Total Adjusted Common Equity(1)(2)
$378,299 $381,201 $364,955 $361,186 
First hurdle quarterly rate1.750 %1.750 %1.750 %1.750 %
First hurdle threshold$6,620 $6,671 $6,387 $6,321 
Second hurdle quarterly rate2.1875 %2.1875 %2.1875 %2.1875 %
Second hurdle threshold$8,275 $8,339 $7,983 $7,901 
Pre-Incentive Fee FFO(1)