Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. generally-accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates.
Real Estate and Lease Intangibles
Our investments in real estate consist of farmland, improvements made to the farmland (consisting primarily of irrigation and drain systems and buildings), and long-lived horticulture acquired in connection with certain land purchases (consisting primarily of almond and pistachio trees, blueberry bushes, and wine vineyards). We record investments in real estate at cost and generally capitalize improvements and replacements when they extend the useful life or improve the efficiency of the asset. We expense costs of routine repairs and maintenance as such costs are incurred. We generally compute depreciation using the straight-line method over the shorter of the estimated useful life or 39 years for buildings and improvements, the shorter of the estimated useful life or 40 years for horticulture, 5 to 10 years for equipment and fixtures, and the shorter of the useful life or the remaining lease term for tenant improvements.
Certain of our acquisitions involve sale-leaseback transactions with newly-originated leases, and other of our acquisitions involve the acquisition of farmland that is already being operated as rental property, in which case we will typically assume the lease in place at the time of acquisition. Prior to us early adopting Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2017-01, “Clarifying the Definition of a Business” (as further described below under “Recently-Issued Accounting Pronouncements”), acquisitions of farmland already being operated as rental property were generally considered to be business combinations under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, “Business Combinations.” However, after our adoption of ASU 2017-01, effective October 1, 2016, we now generally consider both types of acquisitions to be asset acquisitions under ASC 360, “Property Plant and Equipment.”
Whether an acquisition is considered an asset acquisition or a business combination, both ASC 360 and ASC 805 require that the purchase price of real estate be allocated to (i) the tangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, typically consisting of land, buildings, improvements, horticulture, and long-term debt, and, if applicable, (ii) any identifiable intangible assets and liabilities, which may consist of the values of above- and below-market leases, in-place lease values, lease origination costs, and tenant relationships, based in each case on their fair values. In addition, ASC 360 requires us to capitalize the transaction costs incurred in connection with the acquisition, whereas ASC 805 required that all costs related to the acquisition be expensed as incurred, rather than capitalized into the cost of the acquisition.
Management’s estimates of fair value are made using methods similar to those used by independent appraisers, such as a sales comparison approach, a cost approach, and either an income capitalization approach or discounted cash flow analysis. Factors considered by management in its analysis include an estimate of carrying costs during hypothetical, expected lease-up periods, taking into consideration current market conditions and costs to execute similar leases. We also consider information obtained about each property as a result of our pre-acquisition due diligence, marketing, and leasing activities in estimating the fair value of the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed. In estimating carrying costs, management also includes lost reimbursement of real estate taxes, insurance, and certain other operating expenses, as well as estimates of lost rental income at market rates during the hypothetical, expected lease-up periods, which typically range from 1 to 24 months, depending on specific local market conditions. Management also estimates costs to execute similar leases, including leasing commissions, legal fees, and other related expenses, to the extent that such costs are not already incurred in connection with a new lease origination as part of the transaction. While management believes these estimates to be reasonable based on the information available at the time of acquisition, the purchase price allocation may be adjusted if management obtains more information regarding the valuations of the assets acquired or liabilities assumed.
We allocate the purchase price to the fair value of the tangible assets and liabilities of an acquired property by valuing the property as if it were vacant. The “as-if-vacant” value is allocated to land, buildings, improvements, and horticulture, based on management’s determination of the relative fair values of such assets and liabilities as of the date of acquisition.
We record above- and below-market lease values for acquired properties based on the present value (using a discount rate that reflects the risks associated with the leases acquired) of the difference between (i) the contractual amounts to be paid pursuant to the in-place lease agreements, and (ii) management’s estimate of fair market lease rates for the corresponding in-place leases, measured over a period equal to the remaining, non-cancelable term of the lease. When determining the non-cancelable term of the lease, we evaluate whether fixed-rate or below-market renewal options, if any, should be included. The fair value of capitalized above-market lease values, included as part of Other assets in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, is amortized as a reduction of rental income on a straight-line basis over the remaining, non-cancelable terms of the respective leases. The fair value of capitalized below-market lease values, included as part of Other liabilities in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, is amortized as an increase to rental income on a straight-line basis over the remaining, non-cancelable terms of the respective leases, including that of any fixed-price or below-market renewal options.
The value of the remaining intangible assets acquired, which consists of in-place lease values, lease origination costs, and tenant relationship values, are determined based on management’s evaluation of the specific characteristics of each tenant’s lease and our overall relationship with that respective tenant. Characteristics to be considered by management in allocating these values include the nature and extent of our existing business relationships with the tenant, prospects for developing additional business with the tenant, the tenant’s credit quality, and our expectations of lease renewals (including those existing under the terms of the current lease agreement), among other factors.
The value of in-place leases and lease origination costs are amortized to amortization expense on a straight-line basis over the remaining, non-cancelable terms of the respective leases. The value of tenant relationship intangibles, which is the benefit to us resulting from the likelihood of an existing tenant renewing its lease at the existing property or entering into a lease at a different property we own, is amortized to amortization expense over the remaining lease term and any anticipated renewal periods in the respective leases.
Should a tenant terminate its lease, the unamortized portion of the above intangible assets or liabilities would be charged to the appropriate income or expense account.
Impairment of Real Estate Assets
We account for the impairment of our tangible and identifiable intangible real estate assets in accordance with ASC 360, which requires us to periodically review the carrying value of each property to determine whether indicators of impairment exist. Such indicators may include, but are not limited to, declines in a property’s operating performance, deteriorating market conditions, vacancy rates, and environmental or legal concerns. If circumstances support the possibility of impairment, we prepare a projection of the total undiscounted future cash flows of the specific property (without interest charges), including proceeds from disposition, and compare them to the net book value of the property to determine whether the carrying value of the property is recoverable. In performing the analysis, we consider such factors as the tenants’ payment history and financial condition, the likelihood of lease renewal, agricultural and business conditions in the regions in which our farms are located, and whether there are indications that the fair value of the real estate has decreased. If the carrying amount is more than the aggregate undiscounted future cash flows, we would recognize an impairment loss to the extent the carrying value exceeds the estimated fair value of the property.
We evaluate our entire property portfolio each quarter for any impairment indicators and perform an impairment analysis on those select properties that have an indication of impairment. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, we concluded that none of our properties were impaired. There have been no impairments recognized on our real estate assets since our inception.
Tenant Improvements
From time to time, our tenants may pay for improvements on certain of our properties with the ownership of the improvements remaining with us, in which case we will record the cost of such improvements as an asset (tenant improvements), along with a corresponding liability (deferred rent liability) on our balance sheet. When we are determined to be the owner of the tenant improvements, such improvements will be depreciated, and the related deferred rent liability will be amortized as an addition to rental income, each over the shorter of the useful life of the respective improvement or the remaining term of the existing lease in place. If the tenant is determined to be the owner of the tenant improvements, any tenant improvements funded by us are treated as a lease incentive and amortized as a reduction of rental income over the remaining term of the existing lease in place.
In determining whether the tenant or the Company is the owner of such improvements, several factors will be considered, including, but not limited to: (i) whether the tenant or landlord retains legal title to the improvements upon expiration of the lease; (ii) whether the lease stipulates how such improvements should be treated; (iii) the uniqueness of the improvements (i.e., whether the improvements were made to meet the specific needs or for the benefit of the tenant leasing the property, or if the improvements generally increased the value or extended the useful life of the asset improved upon); (iv) the expected useful life of the improvements relative to the remaining length of the lease; (v) whether the tenant improvements are expected to have significant residual value at the end of the lease term; and (vi) whether the tenant or the Company constructs or directs construction of the improvements. The determination of who owns the improvements can be subject to significant judgment.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider cash equivalents to be all short-term, highly-liquid investments that are both readily convertible to cash and have a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase, except that any such investments purchased with funds held in escrow or similar accounts are classified as restricted cash. Items classified as cash equivalents include money-market deposit accounts. Our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were held in the custody of one financial institution, and our balance at times may exceed federally-insurable limits. We did not have any restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents as of December 31, 2018 or 2017.
Crop Inventory and Crop Sales
Crop Inventory
Costs incurred by Land Advisers in operating the 169-acre farm located in Ventura County, California, during 2017 and 2018 generally consisted of growing costs (including the costs of land preparation, plants, fertilizers and pesticides, and labor costs), harvesting and selling costs (including labor costs for harvesting, packaging and cooling costs, and sales commissions), and certain overhead costs (including management/oversight costs). Due to certain market conditions during the year ended December 31, 2018 (primarily the existence of bumper crops in all of the strawberry-growing regions within California), we were unable to sell all of the crops and therefore assessed the market value of such unsold crops to be zero. Accordingly, we wrote down the cost of crop inventory to its estimated net realizable value of zero and recorded a loss during the year ended December 31, 2018, of approximately $1.1 million (including accumulated costs incurred by our Adviser that were allocated to these unsold crops of approximately $31,000 (see Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—TRS Lease Assumption—TRS Fee Arrangements—TRS Expense Sharing Agreement”)), included within Loss on write-down of inventory on the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations.
As of December 31, 2017, crop inventory consisted of the following (dollars in thousands, except for footnote):
Growing costs

Overhead costs(1)

Total Crop inventory

Includes approximately $71,000 of unallocated fees earned by our Adviser from Land Advisers as of December 31, 2017 (see Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—TRS Fee Arrangements” for further discussion on this fee).
Crop Sales
Revenues from the sale of harvested crops are recognized when the harvested crops have been delivered to the facility and title has transferred and are recorded using the market price on the date of delivery. Accumulated costs are charged to cost of products sold (based on percentage of gross revenues from sales) as the related crops are harvested and sold.
Revenues from the sale of harvested crops and accumulated costs allocated to the crops sold for the year ended December 31, 2018, are shown in the following table (dollars in thousands, except for footnotes):
Sales revenues(1)

Cost of sales(2)(3)(4)
Included within Other operating revenues on the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Included within Other operating expenses on the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Excludes rent expense owed to the Company and interest expense owed on a loan from the Company to Land Advisers, both of which expenses were eliminated in consolidation.
Excludes the allocation of a fee earned by our Adviser from Land Advisers of approximately $176,000 during the year ended December 31, 2018, which is included within Base management fee on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations (see Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—TRS Fee Arrangements—TRS Expense Sharing Agreement” for further discussion on this fee).
There was minimal harvesting and sales activity on the farm operated by Land Advisers prior to January 1, 2018. In addition, the lease to Land Advisers for such farm expired on July 31, 2018, and the farm was leased by us to a new, unrelated third-party tenant under a 10-year lease that commenced on August 1, 2018.
Deferred Financing Costs
Deferred financing costs consist of costs incurred to obtain financing, including legal fees, origination fees, and administrative fees. Costs associated with our long-term borrowings are deferred and amortized over the terms of the respective financings using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. In the case of our lines of credit, the straight-line method is used due to the revolving nature of the financing instrument. Upon early extinguishment of any borrowings, the unamortized portion of the related deferred financing costs will be immediately charged to expense. In addition, in accordance with ASC 470, “Debt,” when a financing arrangement is amended so that the only material change is an increase in the borrowing capacity, the unamortized deferred financing costs from the prior arrangement is amortized over the term of the new arrangement.
In accordance with ASU 2015-15, unamortized deferred financing costs associated with our lines of credit are reported as an asset and are included in Other assets, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. In accordance with ASU 2015-03, unamortized deferred financing costs related to long-term borrowings are reported as a deduction from the carrying amount of the related debt liability and are included in Notes and bonds payable, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets. In both cases, the amortization of deferred financing costs is included as a component of interest expense on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we made payments of approximately $675,000 and $881,000, respectively, for deferred financing costs related to new borrowings, and we recorded approximately $582,000 and $524,000, respectively, of total amortization expense related to deferred financing costs.
Deferred Offering Costs
We account for offering costs in accordance with SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) Topic 5.A., which states that incremental offering costs directly attributable to a proposed or actual offering of securities may be deferred and charged against the gross proceeds of such offering. Accordingly, costs incurred related to our ongoing equity offerings are included in Other assets, net on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets and are ratably applied to the cost of equity as the related securities are issued. If an equity offering is subsequently terminated, the remaining, unallocated portion of the related deferred offering costs are charged to expense in the period such offering is aborted and recorded as General and administrative expenses on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Other Assets and Other Liabilities
Other assets, net generally consists primarily of net deferred rent assets, rents receivable, deferred offering costs, prepaid expenses, deferred financing costs associated with our lines of credit, deposits on potential real estate acquisitions, and other miscellaneous receivables. As of December 31, 2018, the balance in Other assets, net also consists of approximately $1.7 million for the cost of five industrial generators that will be used to provide power for newly-drilled wells on certain of our farms until such wells are connected to a permanent power source. Other liabilities, net consists primarily of rents received in advance and net deferred rent liabilities.
Non-controlling Interests
Non-controlling interests are interests in the Operating Partnership not owned by us. We evaluate whether non-controlling interests are subject to redemption features outside of our control. As of both December 31, 2018 and 2017, the non-controlling interests in the Operating Partnership are redeemable at the option of the holder for cash or, at our election, shares of our common stock and thus are reported in the equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheets but separate from stockholders’ equity. The amount reported for non-controlling interests on the Consolidated Statements of Operations represent the portion of income (loss) from the Operating Partnership not attributable to us. At the end of each reporting period, we determine the amount of equity (at book value) that is allocable to non-controlling interests based upon the respective ownership interests. To reflect the non-controlling interests’ equity interest in the Company, an adjustment is made to non-controlling interests, with a corresponding adjustment to paid-in capital, as reflected on the Consolidated Statements of Equity.
Revenue Recognition
Rental revenue includes rents that each tenant pays in accordance with the terms of its respective lease, reported evenly over the non-cancelable term of the lease. Most of our leases contain rental increases at specified intervals; we recognize such revenues on a straight-line basis. Certain other leases provide for additional rental payments that are based on a percentage of the gross crop revenues earned on the farm, which we refer to as participation rents. Such contingent revenue is generally recognized when all contingencies have been resolved and when actual results become known or estimable, enabling us to estimate and/or measure our share of such gross revenues. As a result, depending on the circumstances of each lease, certain participation rents may be recognized by us in the year the crop was harvested, while other participation rents may be recognized in the year following the harvest. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we recorded total participation rents of approximately $1.2 million and $304,000, respectively. No participation rents had been recorded prior to 2017.
Deferred rent receivable, included in Other assets on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, includes the cumulative difference between rental revenue as recorded on a straight-line basis and cash rents received from the tenants in accordance with the lease terms. In addition, we determine, in our judgment, to what extent the deferred rent receivable applicable to each specific tenant is collectible. We perform a quarterly review of the net deferred rent receivable balance as it relates to straight-line rents and take into consideration the tenant’s payment history, the financial condition of the tenant, business conditions of the industry in which the tenant operates, and economic and agricultural conditions in the geographic area in which the property is located. In the event that the collectibility of deferred rent with respect to any given tenant is in doubt, we record an allowance for uncollectible accounts or record a direct write-off of the specific rent receivable. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we wrote off approximately $108,000 and $99,000, respectively, of aggregate deferred rent asset and rent receivable balances related to early terminations of certain leases.
Tenant recovery revenue includes payments received from tenants as reimbursements for certain operating expenses, such as property taxes and insurance premiums. These expenses and their subsequent reimbursements are recognized under property operating expenses as incurred and tenant recovery revenue as earned, respectively, and are recorded in the same periods. We do not record any property operating expenses or tenant recovery revenues associated with costs paid directly by our tenants for net-leased properties.
Other Income
We record non-operating and unusual or infrequent income as Other income on our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Other income recorded for each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was primarily from interest patronage received on certain of our long-term borrowings (see Note 4, “Borrowings,” for additional information on interest patronage recorded during each of the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017).
Involuntary Conversions and Property and Casualty Loss
We account for involuntary conversions, for example, when a nonmonetary asset, such as property or equipment, is involuntarily converted to a monetary asset, such as insurance proceeds, in accordance with ASC 605, “Revenue Recognition – Gains and Losses,” which requires us to recognize a gain or a loss equal to the difference between the carrying amount of the nonmonetary asset and the amount of monetary assets received. Further, in accordance with ASC 450, “Contingencies,” if recovery of the loss is considered to be probable, we will recognize a receivable for the amount expected to be covered by insurance proceeds, not to exceed the related loss recognized, unless such amounts have been realized.
Gain (Loss) on Dispositions of Real Estate Assets
We recognize net (losses) or gains on disposals of real estate assets either upon the abandonment of an asset before the end of its useful life or upon the closing of a transaction (be it an outright sale of a property or the sale of a perpetual, right-of-way easement on all or a portion of a property) with the purchaser. When a real estate asset is abandoned prior to the end of its useful life, a loss is recorded in an amount equal to the net book value of the related real estate asset at the time of abandonment. In the case of a sale of a property, a gain (loss) is recorded to the extent that the total consideration received for a property is more (less) than the property’s net carrying value (plus any closing costs incurred) at the time of the sale. Gains are recognized using the full accrual method (i.e., when the collectability of the sales price is reasonably assured, we are not obligated to perform additional activities that may be considered significant, the initial investment from the buyer is sufficient, and other profit recognition criteria have been satisfied). Gains on sales of real estate assets may be deferred in whole or in part until the requirements for gain recognition have been met.
Income Taxes
We have operated and intend to continue to operate in a manner that will allow us to qualify as a REIT under the Sections 856-860 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). On September 3, 2014, we filed our 2013 federal income tax return, on which we elected to be taxed as a REIT for federal income tax purposes beginning with our tax year ended December 31, 2013. As a REIT, we generally are not subject to federal corporate income taxes on amounts that we distribute to our stockholders (except income from any foreclosure property), provided that, on an annual basis, we distribute at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (excluding net capital gains) to our stockholders and meet certain other conditions. To the extent that we satisfy the annual distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our taxable income (including net capital gains), we will be subject to corporate income tax on our undistributed taxable income. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, we will be subject to federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates (including any alternative minimum tax) and may not be able to qualify as a REIT for the four immediately-subsequent taxable years.  Even as a REIT, we may be subject to certain state and local income and property taxes and to federal income and excise taxes on undistributed taxable income.  In general, however, as long as we qualify as a REIT, no provision for federal income taxes will be necessary, except for taxes on undistributed REIT taxable income and taxes on the income generated by a TRS (such as Land Advisers), if any.
Since January 1, 2013, Land Advisers has been treated as a wholly-owned TRS that is subject to federal and state income taxes. From October 17, 2017, through July 31, 2018, Land Advisers assumed the operations on one of our farms in California (see Note 6, “Related-Party Transactions—TRS Lease Assumption—TRS Fee Arrangements—TRS Expense Sharing Agreement”). There was no material taxable income or loss from Land Advisers for the tax year ended December 31, 2017, and we do not expect to have any material taxable income or loss for the tax year ended December 31, 2018. In addition, there had been no activity in Land Advisers prior to 2017.
Should we have any taxable income or loss in the future, we will account for any income taxes in accordance with the provisions of ASC 740, “Income Taxes,” using the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective income tax basis (including for operating loss, capital loss, and tax credit carryforwards) and are calculated using the enacted tax rates and laws expected to be in effect when such amounts are realized or settled. In addition, we will establish valuation allowances for tax benefits when we believe it is more-likely-than-not (defined as a likelihood of more than 50%) that such assets will not be realized.
We perform an annual review for any uncertain tax positions and, if necessary, will record future tax consequences of uncertain tax positions in the financial statements. An uncertain tax position is defined as a position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return that is not based on clear and unambiguous tax law and which is reflected in measuring current or deferred income tax assets and liabilities for interim or annual periods. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had no material provisions for uncertain tax positions. The prior three tax years remain open for an audit by the Internal Revenue Service.
Comprehensive Income
For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, comprehensive income (loss) equaled net income (loss); therefore, a separate statement of comprehensive income is not included in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Segment Reporting
We manage our operations on an aggregated, single-segment basis for purposes of assessing performance and making operating decisions and, accordingly, have only one reporting and operating segment.
On the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2017, certain property-specific costs have been reclassified from general and administrative expenses to property operating expenses, and acquisition-related expenses have been reclassified to be included within general and administrative expenses. These reclassifications had no impact on previously-reported net income, equity, or net change in cash and cash equivalents.
Recently-Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)” (“ASU 2014-09”), which was amended in each of March, April, May, and December of 2016. ASU 2014-09, as amended, supersedes or replaces nearly all GAAP revenue recognition guidance and establishes a new, control-based revenue recognition model, changes the basis for deciding when revenue is recognized over time or at a point in time and will expand disclosures about revenue. ASU 2014-09 was adopted beginning with the three months ended March 31, 2018, using the modified retrospective method (under which the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance was recognized at the date of initial application). Our adoption of ASU 2014-09 did not (and is not expected to) have a material impact on our results of operations or financial condition, as the primary impact of this update is related to common area maintenance and other material tenant reimbursements, whereas the majority of our revenue is from rental income pursuant to net-lease agreements, with very little being attributed to tenant recoveries. The impact of ASU 2014-09 will not take effect until the new leasing standard (ASU 2016-02, as defined below) becomes effective on January 1, 2019.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842): An Amendment of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification” (“ASU 2016-02”). The new standard requires lessees to apply a dual approach, classifying leases as either finance or operating leases based on the principle of whether or not the lease is effectively a financed purchase by the lessee, which classification determines whether lease expense is recognized based on an effective interest method or on a straight-line basis, respectively, over the term of the lease. A lessee is also required to record a right-of-use asset and a lease liability for all leases with a term of greater than 12 months, regardless of the classification. Leases with a term of 12 months or less will be accounted for similar to existing guidance for operating leases. The new standard requires lessors to account for leases using an approach that is substantially equivalent to existing guidance for sales-type leases, direct financing leases and operating leases. ASU 2016-02 supersedes the previous leasing standard, ASC 840, “Leases,” and is effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted. Once we adopt ASU 2016-02, we expect our legal expenses (included within General and administrative expenses on our Consolidated Statements of Operations) to increase marginally, as the new standard requires us to expense indirect leasing costs that were previously capitalized; however, we do not expect ASU 2016-02 to materially impact our consolidated financial statements, as we currently only have two operating ground lease arrangements with terms greater than one year for which we are the lessee.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU 2016-15”), which provides guidance on certain cash flow classification issues, with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified on the statement of cash flows. We adopted ASU 2016-15, which requires retrospective adoption, beginning with the three months ended March 31, 2018, with no material impact on our consolidated financial statements as a result.
In February 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-05, “Other Income—Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets (Subtopic 610-20): Clarifying the Scope of Asset Derecognition Guidance and Accounting for Partial Sales of Nonfinancial Assets” (“ASU 2017-05”), which provides guidance for recognizing gains and losses from the transfer of nonfinancial assets and in-substance nonfinancial assets in contracts with non-customers (unless other specific guidance applies). ASU 2017-05 requires derecognition once control of a distinct nonfinancial asset or in-substance nonfinancial asset is transferred. Additionally, when a company transfers its controlling interest in a nonfinancial asset but retains a non-controlling ownership interest, any non-controlling interest received is required to be measured at fair value, and the company is required to recognize a full gain or loss on the transaction. As a result of ASU 2017-05, the guidance specific to real estate sales in ASC 360-20 will be eliminated, and partial sales of real estate assets will now be subject to the same derecognition model as all other nonfinancial assets. We adopted ASU 2017-05, which requires retrospective adoption, beginning with the three months ended March 31, 2018, and its adoption did not (and is not expected to) have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.