|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Related Party Transactions [Abstract]|
Our Adviser and Administrator
We are externally managed pursuant to contractual arrangements with our Adviser and our Administrator, which collectively employ all of our personnel and pay their salaries, benefits, and general expenses directly. Both our Adviser and Administrator are affiliates of ours, as their parent company is owned and controlled by David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer, and president. In addition, two of our executive officers, Mr. Gladstone and Terry Brubaker (our vice chairman and chief operating officer), serve as directors and executive officers of each of our Adviser and Administrator, and Michael LiCalsi, our general counsel and secretary, serves as our Administrator’s president, general counsel, and secretary.
The investment advisory agreement with our Adviser that was in effect through March 31, 2017 (the “Prior Advisory Agreement”), and the current administration agreement with our Administrator (the “Administration Agreement”) each became effective February 1, 2013. On April 11, 2017, we entered into a Second Amended and Restated Investment Advisory Agreement (the “Amended Advisory Agreement”) with our Adviser that became effective on April 1, 2017. Our entrance into the Amended Advisory Agreement was approved unanimously by our board of directors, including, specifically, our independent directors.
A summary of the compensation terms for each of the Prior Advisory Agreement, the Amended Advisory Agreement, and the Administration Agreement is below.
Prior Advisory Agreement
Pursuant to the Prior Advisory Agreement that was in effect through March 31, 2017, our Adviser was compensated in the form of a base management fee and, as applicable, an incentive fee. Each of these fees is described below.
Base Management Fee
We paid an annual base management fee equal to 2.0% of our adjusted stockholders’ equity, which was defined as our total stockholders’ equity at the end of each quarter less the recorded value of any preferred stock we may have issued.
We also paid an additional quarterly incentive fee based on funds from operations (as defined in the Prior Advisory Agreement). For purposes of calculating the incentive fee, our funds from operations, before giving effect to any incentive fee (our “Pre-Incentive Fee FFO”), included any realized capital gains or losses, less any distributions paid on our preferred stock, but did not include any unrealized capital gains or losses. The incentive fee rewarded our Adviser if our Pre-Incentive Fee FFO for a particular calendar quarter exceeded a hurdle rate of 1.75% (7.0% annualized) of our total stockholders’ equity (as shown on the balance sheet) at the end of the quarter. Our Adviser received 100% of the amount of the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO for the quarter that exceeded the hurdle rate but was less than 2.1875% of our total stockholders’ equity at the end of the quarter (8.75% annualized) and 20% of the amount of our Pre-Incentive Fee FFO that exceeded 2.1875% for the quarter.
Amended Advisory Agreement
Pursuant to the Amended Advisory Agreement, effective beginning with the three months ended June 30, 2017, our Adviser has been compensated in the form of a base management fee and, each as applicable, an incentive fee, a capital gains fee, and a termination fee. Our Adviser does not charge acquisition or disposition fees when we acquire or dispose of properties, as is common in other externally-managed REITs. Our Board of Directors reviews and considers renewing the agreement with our Adviser each July. During its July 2018 meeting, our board of Directors reviewed and renewed the Amended Advisory Agreement for an additional year, through August 31, 2019. Each of the base management, incentive, and capital gains fees is described below.
Base Management Fee
A base management fee is paid quarterly and is calculated as 2.0% per annum (0.50% per quarter) of the prior calendar quarter’s total adjusted equity, which is defined as total equity plus total mezzanine equity, if any (each as reported on our balance sheet), adjusted to exclude unrealized gains and losses and certain other one-time events and non-cash items (“Total Adjusted Equity”). During the year ended December 31, 2018, our Adviser granted us a non-contractual, unconditional, and irrevocable waiver on the portion of the base management fee attributable to our Series B Preferred Stock, which is included within Total Adjusted Equity (each as defined in Note 7, “Equity”). This waiver resulted in a credit of approximately $46,000 to be applied against the base management fee for the year ended December 31, 2018.
An incentive fee is calculated and payable quarterly in arrears if the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO for a particular quarter exceeds a hurdle rate of 1.75% (7.0% annualized) of the prior calendar quarter’s Total Adjusted Equity. For purposes of this calculation, Pre-Incentive Fee FFO is defined in the Amended Advisory Agreement as FFO (also as defined in the Amended Advisory Agreement) accrued by the Company during the current calendar quarter (prior to any incentive fee calculation for the current calendar quarter), less any dividends paid on preferred stock securities that are not treated as a liability for GAAP purposes. Our Adviser will receive: (i) no Incentive Fee in any calendar quarter in which the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO does not exceed the hurdle rate; (ii) 100% of the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO with respect to that portion of such Pre-Incentive Fee FFO, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized); and (iii) 20% of the amount of the Pre-Incentive Fee FFO, if any, that exceeds 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized).
Capital Gains Fee
A capital gains-based incentive fee will be calculated and payable in arrears at the end of each fiscal year (or upon termination of the Amended Advisory Agreement). The capital gains fee shall equal: (i) 15% of the cumulative aggregate realized capital gains minus the cumulative aggregate realized capital losses, minus (ii) any aggregate capital gains fees paid in prior periods. For purposes of this calculation, realized capital gains and losses will be calculated as (x) the sales price of the property, minus (y) any costs to sell the property and the then-current gross value of the property (which includes the property’s original acquisition price plus any subsequent, non-reimbursed capital improvements). At the end of each fiscal year, if this figure is negative, no capital gains fee shall be paid. Our sale of Oregon Trail during the year ended December 31, 2018 (see Note 3, “Real Estate and Intangible Assets—Significant Existing Real Estate Activity—Property Dispositions—Property Sale”), contributed to our Adviser earning a capital gains fee of approximately $628,000, which was the first capital gains fee recorded by us since our inception. However, during the three months ended September 30, 2018, our Adviser granted us a non-contractual, unconditional, and irrevocable waiver equal to approximately $778,000 (which represented the full amount of the capital gains fee recorded as of September 30, 2018) to be applied as a credit against the capital gains fee for the year ended December 31, 2018. Capital losses recorded in connection with dispositions of certain real estate assets during the three months ended December 31, 2018, resulted in a reduction of the capital gains fee of approximately $150,000 during the three months ended December 31, 2018.
In the event of our termination of the Amended Advisory Agreement for any reason (with 120 days’ prior written notice and the vote of at least two-thirds of our independent directors), a termination fee would be payable to the Adviser equal to three times the sum of the average annual base management fee and incentive fee earned by the Adviser during the 24-month period prior to such termination.
Pursuant to the Administration Agreement, we pay for our allocable portion of the Administrator’s expenses incurred while performing services to us, including, but not limited to, rent and the salaries and benefits expenses of our Administrator’s employees, including our chief financial officer, treasurer, chief compliance officer, general counsel and secretary (who also serves as our Administrator’s president, general counsel, and secretary), and their respective staffs.
As approved by our Board of Directors, effective July 1, 2014, our allocable portion of the Administrator’s expenses is generally derived by multiplying our Administrator’s total expenses by the approximate percentage of time the Administrator’s employees perform services for us in relation to their time spent performing services for all companies serviced by our Administrator under similar contractual agreements.
TRS Lease Assumption
On October 17, 2017, Land Advisers entered into an Assignment and Assumption of Agricultural Lease (the “Assigned TRS Lease”) with the previously-existing tenant on a 169-acre farm located in Ventura County, California. The Assigned TRS Lease, as amended (only to shorten the term and to remove any tenant renewal options), expired on July 31, 2018. In addition, in connection with the initial operations on the farm, on October 17, 2017, Land Advisers issued a $1.7 million unsecured promissory note to the Company that matured on July 31, 2018, and bore interest at a rate equal to the prime rate plus a spread of 5.0% per annum.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, the rent owed to us from Land Advisers as a result of the Assigned TRS Lease, the principal balance of the promissory note Land Advisers issued to us, and the interest owed thereon were all forgiven by us. All such related amounts have been eliminated in consolidation, and, as a result, no rental or interest income from Land Advisers was recorded by us on the Consolidated Statement of Operations during the year ended December 31, 2018.
Effective August 1, 2018, this farm was leased to a new, unrelated third-party tenant under a 10-year lease.
TRS Fee Arrangements
In connection with the TRS Lease Assumption, on October 23, 2017, in exchange for services provided by our Adviser to Land Advisers, our Adviser and Land Advisers entered into an Expense Sharing Agreement (the “TRS Expense Sharing Agreement”). In addition, during the three months ended December 31, 2017, to account for the time our Administrator’s staff spends on activities related to Land Advisers, we adopted a policy wherein a portion of the fee paid by the Company to our Administrator pursuant to the Administration Agreement would be allocated to Land Advisers (the “TRS Administration Fee Allocation, and together with the TRS Expense Sharing Agreement, the “TRS Fee Arrangements”).
TRS Expense Sharing Agreement
Pursuant to the TRS Expense Sharing Agreement, our Adviser was responsible for maintaining the day-to-day operations on the farm leased to Land Advisers from October 17, 2017, through July 31, 2018. In exchange for such services, Land Advisers compensated our Adviser through reimbursement of certain expenses incurred by our Adviser, including Land Advisers’ pro-rata share of our Adviser’s payroll and related benefits (based on the percentage of each employee’s time devoted to matters related to Land Advisers in relation to the time such employees devoted to all affiliated funds, collectively, advised by our Adviser) and general overhead expenses (based on the total general overhead expenses incurred by our Adviser multiplied by the ratio of hours worked by our Adviser’s employees on matters related to Land Advisers to the total hours worked by our Adviser’s employees).
Throughout the term of the lease assumed by Land Advisers, our Adviser incurred approximately $207,000 of costs related to services provided to Land Advisers (approximately $136,000 and $71,000 of which were incurred during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively). Such costs, while payable by Land Advisers, were initially accumulated and deferred (included within Crop inventory on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2017) and then allocated to costs of sales as the related crops were harvested and sold. During the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately $176,000 of the total accumulated costs incurred by our Adviser was allocated to the costs of crops sold and is included within Management Fee on the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018. The remaining accumulated costs incurred by our Adviser of approximately $31,000 was allocated to harvested but unsold crops initially held within crop inventory, the market value of which was written down to zero during the year ended December 31, 2018. As such, all costs allocated to these crops (including the $31,000 incurred by our Adviser) were included within Loss on write-down of crop inventory on the accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2018. See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies—Crop Inventory and Crop Sales—Crop Inventory,” for further discussion on the write-down of our crop inventory. In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2018, our Adviser granted Land Advisers a non-contractual, unconditional, and irrevocable waiver of approximately $190,000 to be applied as a credit against a portion of the fees incurred by our Adviser on behalf of Land Advisers pursuant to the TRS Expense Sharing Agreement.
TRS Administration Fee Allocation
Under to the TRS Administration Fee Allocation, a portion of the fee owed by us to our Administrator under the Administration Agreement is allocated to Land Advisers based on the percentage of each employee’s time devoted to matters related to Land Advisers in relation to the total time such employees devoted to the Company.
During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, approximately $57,000 and $22,000, respectively, of the administration fee that would have otherwise been owed by us to our Administrator was allocated to Land Advisers. This administration fee is payable by Land Advisers and is included within Administration fee on the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
On April 11, 2017, we entered into an agreement with Gladstone Securities for it to act as our non-exclusive agent to assist us with arranging financing for our properties (the “Financing Arrangement Agreement”). Gladstone Securities is a privately-held broker-dealer and a member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. Gladstone Securities is an affiliate of ours, as its parent company is owned and controlled by Mr. Gladstone, who also serves on the board of managers of Gladstone Securities.
Financing Arrangement Agreement
We pay Gladstone Securities a financing fee in connection with the services it provides to us for securing financing on our properties. Depending on the size of the financing obtained, the maximum amount of the financing fee, which will be payable upon closing of the respective financing, will range from 0.5% to 1.0% of the amount of financing obtained. The amount of the financing fee may be reduced or eliminated as determined by us and Gladstone Securities after taking into consideration various factors, including, but not limited to, the involvement of any unrelated third-party brokers and general market conditions. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, we paid total financing fees to Gladstone Securities of approximately $83,000 and $36,000, respectively. Through December 31, 2018, the total amount of financing fees paid to Gladstone Securities represented approximately 0.12% of the total financings secured since the Financing Arrangement Agreement has been in place.
On January 10, 2018, we entered into a dealer-manager agreement, which was amended and restated on May 31, 2018 (the “Dealer-Manager Agreement”), with Gladstone Securities, whereby Gladstone Securities serves as our exclusive dealer-manager in connection with the Primary Offering of our Series B Preferred Stock (each as defined in Note 7, “Equity—Series B Preferred Stock”). Pursuant to the Dealer-Manager Agreement, Gladstone Securities provides certain sales, promotional, and marketing services to us in connection with the offering of the Series B Preferred Stock, and we generally will pay Gladstone Securities: (i) selling commissions of up to 7.0% of the gross proceeds from sales of Series B Preferred Stock in the Primary Offering (the “Selling Commissions”), and (ii) a dealer-manager fee of 3.0% of the gross proceeds from sales of Series B Preferred Stock in the Primary Offering (the “Dealer-Manager Fee”). Gladstone Securities may, in its sole discretion, remit all or a portion of the Selling Commissions and may also reallow all or a portion of the Dealer-Manager Fees to participating broker-dealers and wholesalers in support of the Primary Offering. The terms of the Dealer-Manager Agreement were approved by our board of directors, including all of its independent directors. During the year ended December 31, 2018, we paid total Selling Commissions and Dealer-Manager Fees to Gladstone Securities in connection with sales of the Series B Preferred Stock of approximately $2.3 million (of which approximately $2.2 million were then remitted by Gladstone Securities to unrelated third-parties involved in the offering, including participating broker-dealers and wholesalers). Such fees are netted against the gross proceeds received from sales of the Series B Preferred Stock and are included within Additional paid-in capital on the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet.
Related Party Fees
The following table summarizes related-party fees paid or accrued for and reflected in our accompanying consolidated financial statements (dollars in thousands):
Related-Party Fees Due
Amounts due to related parties on our accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2018 and 2017 were as follows (dollars in thousands):
The entire disclosure for related party transactions. Examples of related party transactions include transactions between (a) a parent company and its subsidiary; (b) subsidiaries of a common parent; (c) and entity and its principal owners; and (d) affiliates.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef